STUDENT FEEDBACK Technology and World Change July 2007

Student feedback is important. It’s important to me that my students achieve their course objectives at the end of each course I teach. Therefore, at the end of each of my course, I will ask for feedback to find out what they learned.

What do I do with the feedback? Based on the suggestions, I modify the contents, adjust the students’ workload and update the case studies.

After all, it is really not what I teach, but what the students learn that count. My job is to ensure I did not waste their time.

I did not edit the feedbacks nor simply quote a line or two from their feedback. Except if the student ask that I take out confidential information. You are seeing all the bad comments together with the good.

I’d rather be candid. 

Click here to submit your journals. 

Technology and World Change Classes

Technology and World Change – August 2006 
Technology and World Change – January 2007 
Technology and World Change – August 2007
Technology and World Change – January 2008
Technology and World Change – May 2008
Technology and World Change – August 2008
Technology and World Change – January 2010

Technical Entrepreneurship Classes

Technical Entrepreneurship – August 2008
Technical Entrepreneurship – May 2009
Technical Entrepreneurship – August 2009
Technical Entrepreneurship – January 2010 

Other Classes

Masters in Technopreneurship (SIM) – May 2008

My greatest takeaway from this course has been the strong emphasis on presentation and non-textbook based learning. As stated in journal 1, Thomas Merton once said that ‘œthe least of learning is done in the classrooms� and throughout this thirteen weeks, I believe that the style of learning has greatly benefited me.

To justify the above point, I appreciate the weekly break out sessions in which all groups are tasked with finding out information about a particular topic and present their findings to the class. I found one session especially useful and that was on the topic of funding innovation. In this instance, the textbook, Exploring Innovation, which is written by UK authors, did not reflect how local entrepreneurs sourced for funds when they needed to start up a company or business. In the break out session, each group was tasked with finding support from local government organisations such as EDB and Spring Singapore and other groups of people such as venture capitalists and business angels. My group did on the support by EDB and Spring Singapore and it was indeed informative (not only for exam purposes) but for personal enrichment that schemes such as SEEDS and Regional HQ awards schemes are available locally to encourage entrepreneurship.

Class discussions were also lively and generated much ideas and viewpoints. For example, my group presented on technology to safeguard devices for our final presentation and this generated much discussion among my peers with regards to how the software worked etc. This experience has taught our group to be prepared to think on our feet and to respond appropriately, which is a valuable skill in the future when we step into the workplace. The fact that a discussion style of lecturing is carried out allows us to clarify our doubts with any presentations and this made the lesson more realistic.

In addition, I believe that I have been actively involved in class discussions. For example, in the case of the lawsuit between Kidde and X-IT, I offered my opinion of the limitations of patents unless the person applying for it does so worldwide and it might incur astronomical costs. Class discussions and case study presentations in this course are important to complement the learning in the textbook. This is especially so as the examples in the textbook are mainly based on past events and certain examples might not even be relevant to Singapore’s context.

With regards to honing my class presentation skill, I believe I have improved a lot since the first presentation, which my group did on induction cooking. It was a very unique experience as we could bring our cooking equipment to school to demonstrate a technology that the class was not entirely familiar with. Over the past thirteen weeks, I have learnt to speak up in class and during presentations, especially during the question and answer segment. In addition, I have developed an extemporaneous style of presentation in which I do away with cue cards completely and speak to the class without reference to visual aids. This was especially effective as it prevents mere recitation from cue cards which might lose the attention of the audience. Thought speaking extemporaneously does require a certain amount of memory work, I linked up all my points into a process so that they would appear logical and I would be less likely to lose my train of thoughts during presentation.

From my first journal, I also mentioned that I would ‘œread extensively.’� However, I must admit that other than the textbook and the articles posted on Vista, I have not specially picked up any technology books to read. However, I have the habit of reading newspapers everyday, especially during mealtimes, hence I keep abreast of news and though not always technology related, they do help me to develop a holistic view of world events. In retrospect, if I could do the course all over again, I would attempt to read up more on technology specific articles and journals to enhance my knowledge in this field.

In conclusion, do I believe that the least of the learning was done in the seminar rooms? Definitely. Lesson time is only three hours per week and it is simply too short a duration to absorb much knowledge. As mentioned before, one remembers a small percentage of what he reads, a higher percentage if he presents and an even higher percentage if he teaches others. I have achieved most of my objectives set out but I would aim to read more extensively. I would like to end off with a saying by Albert Einstein, ‘œWisdom is not a product of schooling but of the lifelong attempt to acquire it.’� Though the course has ended, I believe I would continue perusing my interest in relevant fields associated with TWC course and through my determination, I believe I would be that much closer to attaining ‘œwisdom’� in certain aspects of life.

I think I have achieved my objectives set up in the first lesson. I have learnt what I wanted about successful entrepreneurs and the different factors which contribute to their success. The seminar presenting the three guest speakers, in particular, had a great impact on me. This, as well as the many case studies we covered in class, taught me that you don’t have to be a genius to be an entrepreneur. In fact, most of the time it requires hard work and perseverance, as well as a certain foresight and a willingness to take risks.

My confidence and presentation skills have also definitely improved thanks to the break-out sessions we have every week. In the beginning, my group usually could not finish up our slides and speeches in time, but as the weeks went by, we got more experienced and started splitting up research topics among ourselves. We also learnt to think quickly and became more adept in picking out the focus and important points to put in our presentation, from the jumble of information we had. On a more personal level, I used to be extremely nervous whenever I had to speak in front of the class. However, I find that I am more calm and confident now. I think this is my biggest takeaway from this course because it has helped me greatly in my other courses as well, and I am sure it will help me in the future.


During my very first lesson or journal, I mentioned that I would want to gain as much knowledge on technology as I can, as well as being able to be a good presenter in class.

My peers from my group have pointed out that compared to my very first presentation, I have improved a lot in terms of being able to speak slower(speaking very fast is always my greatest weakness), more eye contact, as well as being able to converse with the class better. Although I do admit, there are many people in the class that are definitely better presenters compared to me, I am satisfied with this improvement that I have gained. Having improved on my presentation skills definitely increase my confidence level in my future projects or school modules especially in SMU.

Through TWC lessons, I gained a lot of knowledge about technology that I never knew about before. Such examples would be the importance of Intellectual Property, as well as the benefits and weakness of IP.

Through some of the talks that were organised for us, I realized that other than coming up with a sound technology, business strategy are also very important for technological companies.

Technopreneurs gained respect from me by being able to persevere on despite their occasional failures and not being able to seek for funding sometimes. Because of this course, I am able to communicate and talk about technology at ease with my peers as compared to the past.

Besides being able to come up and selecting the right technology, a company needs to have the right people, and the right processes. Deficiencies in any one of these areas can compromise availability. This is what I have learnt in lessons. Network as well as have a well-defined set of processes that cover all phases of a solution’s cycle are crucial to a company as well. In each industry, we often need to be able to examine the best practices and innovate/invent a sound technology.

Technopreneurs certainly gained respect from me by being able to persevere on despite their occasional failures and not being able to seek for funding sometimes. Because of this course, I am able to communicate and talk about technology at ease with my peers as compared to the past.

Being much more interested in technology, I noticed myself actively reading up and being more interested in news and article of technology. I am glad that I’ve grown in terms of knowledge of technology in this area. Understanding technology does not just stop here, I have to constantly read up and keep up with upcoming events of technology as globalisation continues to expand on. I am grateful for the way this course allows me to gain this pool of specialised knowledge and insights on technology and world change.

In terms of achieving objections, I believe that I have achieved much more than the objectives I have set myself right at the beginning.


Before I came to this class, I hardly knew anything about technology. Thus, I wrote in my first journal that my only objective was I want to learn about basic principles of technology and how it relates to business and society. However, after thirteen weeks of Technology and World Change classes, I realized that I have achieved more than what I planned to.

From the textbook, I learnt largely about the theories of innovation. To most of the people, theories may seem boring and unimportant, but for me, theories really help not only in defining and explaining the cause and effect of technology but also in the understanding of the whole history and process of technology and innovation. The fundamental principles of technology, the emergence of technology, the sources of innovation, the advantages and ill-effects of technology, the cycles of technology are some of the significant things I have learnt from the textbook.

In class, I had the opportunity to hear directly from a true entrepreneur about the existence of technology in real world. Experience is said to be the best teacher, and I could not agree more to that statement. Getting to hear the sharing from the professor was one of the opportunities I was lucky enough to have in order to broaden my knowledge by linking what I have read from the textbook with the experience from the professor regarding the application of technology in the entrepreneurship.

Moreover, I benefited from the active class style adopted in class. Through the group and case study presentation, I had the chance to improve my presentation skill. At first, I had no idea about how a presentation should be done in Singapore since I am new to this country, but the large amount of presentation chances triggered me to enhance my presentation skill. The in-class presentation taught me how to split workload among group members and collate it together as well as prepare for the presentation effectively despite the time constraint. In-class presentations also enhanced the class’ knowledge because we gained knowledge from the sharing of other groups. In other words, we had the opportunity to know beyond what we had researched and at the same time, we were constantly engaged in critical thinking in absorbing the new information delivered by other groups.

The most important thing is I learnt the significance of technology in almost every part of human life. Technology belongs to everyone, it is in everyday’s life and it will be more and more in demand in future life. Technology teaches us to be fast for it is always changing and improving, to be certain in order to be able to keep in track with the development of technology and to be cautious in measuring the effect of technology. As Professor just addressed, technology can be unforgivable; what you learnt today may be outdated tomorrow. Nevertheless, it is also a good sign, because you will never be too late to learn about technology.

p.s. Thank you for everything, Prof! I gained a lot from your lessons. I wish you good luck in your career and life 🙂


I started off in the first journal admitting my apprehension in having to take this course as I had little knowledge and interest on the subject of technology. I feared that I wouldn’t do very well. But I did realize that this course was also an opportunity for me to deepen my knowledge on technology, a chance for me to learn how it affects our everyday lives. I saw it also as an opportunity to get to know the people and ideas behind the things that we take for granted everyday, the things that help make our lives easier.

Reflecting back, I think my idea of technology was too narrow. Back then, my idea of technology basically encompassed computers and gadgets. I didn’t really see that much of the whole world that we lived in could be associated with a certain level of technology and required vast amounts of innovation for them to become reality.

After 13 weeks of TWC, I think it wouldn’t be honest of me to say that I have learnt all there is to know for a person of my level and age. This technologically dominated world that we live in today is so vast and deep, that it would be impossible for anyone to neither learn nor teach everything. When it comes to computers and gadgets, I probably am still a ‘˜techno idiot’ by today’s standards. But what I can honestly say about this last 13 weeks is that it has certainly deepened my knowledge, and even interest, in technology.

So, while I still may not know exactly how a thumb drive or a microchip works, I certainly can say that, to a large extent, I now have a greater understanding of how technology has changed our lives over the course of time. It has radically changed our lives at certain points in history, and at some point in the future it probably will again. Meanwhile, the everyday developments in today’s technology continue to affect and change our lives in one way or another. Its development never stagnates.

Technological development is happening at such a breakneck speed that what is new today, might be obsolete in a year or even a month’s time. A large majority of the technological developments today have been for the greater benefit of mankind, their existence has made human life much better and more comfortable. But whilst this has been said time and time again over the last 13 weeks, it has also been shown that technology does not come without negative impacts on society as well. When put into the wrong hands, numerous examples can be drawn that shows us that technology can be extremely dangerous and harmful to mankind as well. The development of nuclear power has enabled man to develop even more powerful and deadly nuclear weapons. With the development in all areas of technology, comes greater need and demand for energy and fossil fuels to burn to produce this energy, this has led to historic highs in oil prices and significantly contributed to global warming and climate change issues. Development of new drugs to cure diseases have also caused increased occurrences of side effects on health and increased drug abuse problems.

My knowledge of technology might certainly have deepened and no longer do I consider technology just about being able to work computers and gadgets. But, if the last 13 weeks has thought me anything, it is that at the very core of technology is innovation, and that the very foundation of innovation are people’s ideas and their desire and will to make their ideas a reality.

In this aspect, I feel I certainly have achieved my second aim of getting to know the ideas and people behind today’s innovations.

The numerous textbook examples have been useful in allowing me to get acquainted with inventors and their innovations. But, in terms of getting to know the people and ideas behind today’s innovations, I feel the most significant lessons have come from the real life interactions and interviews with our very own entrepreneurs. I felt I gained a lot from the group presentation on their interview Mr. Henn Tan (creator of the Thumb drive). I am also very glad that I had the opportunity to meet and interview Mr. Paddy Tan (founder of BAK2U) for my group’s project. Unlike examples of Bill Gates or Steve Jobs, it was easier to connect with their stories and backgrounds. Through them, I realized that not only do you need a good idea, you also need the courage to venture out into the business world, the will to survive and the desire and commitment to push your idea through, only then will you be able to achieve success.

Through them, I also learnt about the very real concerns over intellectual property and the need for capital and funding. It is easy to say that we want to become tomorrow’s success stories, but their stories have shown that it is indeed a cruel world out there. No one is going to pity you if you do not legally protect your idea and product. Even then, you might not survive long enough in the business world to reap rewards for your idea, if you do not have the financial power to back it.

In a dog eat dog environment, they not only needed foresight, they have a constant need to stay ahead of the competition and times. It is obvious that neither of them has ‘˜rested on their laurels’. They realize that their hard work will all come to nothing, if they just sit back and do not improve. Despite their success, there is still an enthusiasm and drive to succeed that is very obvious in all of them.

On the whole, while I could, to a certain extent, say that I have successfully achieved my goals that were set out in the first week, I realize that this was only the beginning in what will be a very long journey of discovery. In addition to that, while this journey may teach me many new lessons and maybe even give me some insights into becoming a future innovator/entrepreneur, success will not just fall into my hands, there will be a lot of hard work, bumps and bruises along the way. But, with perseverance and perhaps some luck along the way, who knows what will lie ahead, success could be just down the road.


Hmm. Looking back, my goal was just a small one, which was to be more out-spoken. This did not just apply to TWC lessons but also for my other classes as well. I’ve successfully achieved it! I was very scared at first to speak up in class. I was afraid what i said would sound nonsensical, or not smart enough. I come from Serangoon Junior College. Everyone that i have spoken to so far has come from a really good Junior College like my teammates in my TWC group. There is Huang Jing from RJC, Adeline from TJC. I was so embarrassed at first when i had to tell them my school name. After getting to k ow everyone better, no one looked down on me just because i came from one of the lousiest JC in Singapore. Many encouraged me. In the end, we all still took the same exam and still made it to SMU. Thats what matters. It was time to let the past remain in the past and start a new at SMU. I have definitely grown. With all the in-class presentations along with the regular presentation, my team even took on the task with setting up the dialogue session for our guest speaker. That was my first time handling such a task. I have learned a lot from our TA as well. He was always there whenever we had our quarries. In all, I really need to thank my lucky stars that i got you, Prof, as the Professor for this course. Hearing my friends from other classes complaining about how boring their classes are, made me real grateful for having you. You have made this subject interesting to me and I have learned a lot from this class. Thank you.


Through the course of this module, I have discovered much about innovations that I have never thought of before. Now, I am clearer about the nature of innovation, the different types and forms it can take and how technological change over a period of time affects innovation. Moreover, I have acquired more in-depth knowledge about the activities associated with innovations, such as the different sources of innovation, the steps taken in the innovation process and the significance of intellectual property rights. Furthermore, learning about the management of innovation, like how funds can be obtained, also helped me understand how innovations are sustained in real life. The course did not merely dealt with theories only, as many real life case studies were provided, allowing us to know how the theories are applicable to real life situations and making the knowledge we obtained seem more relevant.

From all that has been covered, I do believe that my objectives set up at the beginning have been achieved. For example, I now have a much clearer understanding of how a product is commercialized, a piece of knowledge that I have set out to attain. The tedious process includes coming up with a design to decide on the appearance of the product and the manufacturing process, production engineering to select the appropriate production system, pilot testing to ensure the safety of the product, then finally embarking on full-scale manufacturing and ending off with the market launch. It was also interesting to note the various existing models that organize those activities in different ways depending on the adopted focus. Also, I gained insight on how the progression and evolution of technology is affected by the long wave cycle. Technological change is cyclical instead of simply accelerating over time and different kinds of innovation tend to occur at different stages of the long wave.

In all, I have indeed learnt much about innovations, technology, how people affect them and how they affect us. To add on, additional things were occasionally covered in the seminars, such as how a listed company can increase its value and how technology can have ill-effects also. I would say that going through the course was certainly an enriching journey, as much that was learnt was relevant and applicable to us in the future.


After 13 weeks of rigorous drilling, I have definitely become more well-versed in issues concerning technology or world change as compared to when I first started off. With regards to achieving my objectives set up in the first lesson, which included the impact of technology upon society, technological management and to be articulate about technological issues, I feel that I have achieved to a large extent. It was all the more rewarding that, through my journey to becoming more articulate about technological issues, I gained confidence in my presentation skills. We had to research and present on a topic every lesson and every TWC class, to me, was extremely interactive and enjoyable. My experience was made even more fulfilling as, besides achieving the objectives I set up in the first lesson, I learnt even more than I intended to. My learning was especially enhanced with the interactive speakers’ session. During the session, I felt that what I learnt was put in perspective; the perspective of a practical world. Thus, I gained many perceptive insights from the speakers’ real life experiences. In conclusion, I have met my objectives and am proud to say that I have gained even more than I wanted to.


Generally, I admit that I have achieved most of the objectives that I set at the beginning of the TWC course. Firstly, during the great deal of seminars, I have acquired a big deal of information that I desired. Among them, I really appreciated the precious knowledge of technical entrepreneur that the class covered in week 9. It pointed out the very arduous but interesting process that any technical entrepreneur must experience to succeed. I also found the in-class sharing experience time of our Prof is very helpful. I still remember the most important lesson that I learnt from her about business ethics: if we doubt something, don’t do it. Secondly, my English, particularly reading and writing abilities, has improved a lot even though that I hardly recognized because it was such a step-by-step and time-consuming process. Basically, I got to know more technical terms and phases through a lot of technology relevant articles. Besides, with the helping hand of weekly journal assignments, I also subsequently enhanced my writing skill. To me, an international student, improvement in my English ability is one of the most important key factors for further developments. Last but not least, my presentation skill has been much better than before due to the weekly in-class short presentations and group ones as well.

Nonetheless, I believe that if given another chance, I could do the course better in many aspects. One of them is my class participation. This semester, I usually got overwhelmed by Singaporean peers and rarely tried to express my ideas in class. Thus sometimes I had a lot of creative ideas but never brought into class for discussion. I must improve on this issue for the next term because Prof has said: it’s not important how much you know, but how much other think you know. Another is my class connection with peers. At the end of the day, I suddenly realized that I did not integrate with my TWC friends well; thus I find difficulties to remember some people’s faces and neither did they. As friendship is a good ground to build business connections, I should begin to think about this issue sooner.

Lastly, I just want to say thank to you, Prof, that you did help me a lot through the course and share with me your invaluable working experiences outside in the corporate world. Indeed, you inspired me a lot through your successful story. Thank you.


I have achieved most of my objectives I listed down in my first journal and actually received more from this class than i expected to.

Technology and World Change was a module that I did not know what to expect from it. I knew about the technology that was around and how our world has been changing but was not aware of the minor details of it. The course offered me a new perspective of what technology is, how the world has been and will be changed by it and also what I find the most interesting, technopreneurship. I loved hearing and reading up on how people could start up something from nothing and transform their ideas into reality. It was amazing to see how technology proliferated into our lives that it sometimes goes undetected as it is so ingrained in our society. I never used to think about why and how the Television set came about or how computers were started, I just use them. This class has actually taught me how to think more critically and also be aware of technological changes and its effects in the future. It has a lot to do with our business market and it is important to know that technology has a big part in changing how the market works and what are the essentials that one must have in a business.

I also mentioned that I would want to learn to work successfully as a team, as this is my first semester in university and its something important to be able to cooperate with others who are different in character and capabilities, to achieve something that I would not be able to achieve myself. My team has been working well together and delegated work equally among its members for all our class presentations. It is crucial that all members are committed to putting in their best effort, hence making teamwork more efficient. Building better relations among team members also help build up team support and trust, which I find pushes the group forward and makes the process more enjoyable. We had an international student in our group that added diversity. But it was definitely harder to get her to start sharing her views and speaking up. It was only through repeated efforts by the group that she started to feel more at ease and has contributed to the team by providing ideas with a touch of difference.

However, I could have done better to acheive one of my objectives. I mentioned that I would speak up more in class and have a more interactive session with the class. I realized that I was able to ask questions and speak up but most of the time, I was trying to arrange the new lessons, that I was picking up, in my head. I also tended to clear my doubts by discussing with my group during lunch every week. This could have been done during class instead of outside class.

Nevertheless, this has been an enjoyable module for me. Being able to learn about real life practical stuff and also acquire knowledge from theory. Being able to practice and improve on my presentation skills was something valuable to me as well. I am now less afraid to stand in front of a group of audience to talk but also able to churn out slides for a topic within 45 minutes. All these is a big portion of what I need for school and when I step out into the working world.


Yes, I believe I have achieved quite a lot of my objectives. Besides learning all that I have stated in the first journal, I also got a lot more out of this course. The additional first-hand experience which I got out of this course are: 1. Intellectual Property Rights Don’t show case my technology until I have an approved and legal patent. Otherwise, others may copy, and it is very difficult to sue to recover losses. Sueing other companies for infringement is a very tough war to fight.

2. Network is very important. It is very important for us to build our network of friends because it enables us to do many things, ranging from even getting jobs to becoming our business partners. They can help us find angel investors for funding too, as demonstrated by Philip Rosedale. Also, we need to develop a group of close friends who will be our future business partners if we have a good business idea.

3. Character traits of Entrepreneur: They care for others, and don’t mind being nice and generous to others. In this way, they build their network, and also build friendships that will help them back in times of need. Also, being an entrepreneur is not easy, it takes a lot of perseverance. Hence, perseverance is another trait that I will need if I want to succeed as an entrepreneur.

4. Think out of the box Most entrepreneur think differently. They are able to think of ways to overcome problems in fundings, competition, etc. Because of their creative mind, they are able to see business potentials where the normal people can’t see, and also create new products.


Yes, I do. I have achieved my initial objective which is to learn how to apply my ideas accurately. Throughout this course, I learned so many things such as innovation, intellectual property, technical enterpreneur, etc. What I like most from this course is about intellectual property and technical enterpreneur when Professor shared your experience in class. Since I believe that I can read any books, but the real experience is different. I also liked when Professor assigned some students to conduct a talk. Now I understand that what makes application of innovation successful is all about fund, strategy, enterpreneur, IP, and time. Therefore, I think I have achieved my initial objective. Last but not least, thank you so much Professor for all your guidance and teaching this 13 weeks. I believe that I have learned a lot of things from you and I really apologize if we were too naughty in the class =) Well done, Prof!!! ^^v


Throughout the course of Term 1, I’ve kept my primary aim in main: Be Different (caps deliberate). I’ll address the 2 aims I had from the beginning to end, in order: – Entrepreneurial spirit and creativity. I do design work, and I’ve expanded my portfolio three fold with both stock art and graphic designs for presentations and stuff. I’ve got friends, and friends of friends, who come to me asking to help them do some design stuff. (I’m going to have to charge a fee soon.No kidding.)SMU is especially unique in that we prize good advertising; and it’s healthy competition and a good oppurtunity to hone design skills; I’ve been asked by the SSU to help with marketing for Waikiki, a bunch of events, and next year’s freshman Sportscamp, as well as marketing aspects of my own Climb Team. But I’ve learnt that the technical aspect of design and the intuitive step are two different things altogether. Good design can be learnt and practiced, but finding good ideas is like digging for gold; you can only find a few grams after digging through tonnes of rubble. If you find it at all. Sometimes good ideas really just fall down from the sky. – As for entrepreneurship, opportunities to earn money are really pretty much everywhere. I would love to learn everything I can about technology, because the market truly is limitless if you can come up with a good piece of household technology and market it to the masses. I’ve got a number of outside design contracts, which pay real money and everything, that I had to turn down because I have to study (inelastic supply, hah.). Which is why I’m gathering a few close contacts who are adept at digital design, as a team is more flexible and is able to leverage on synergy. However, I’m pretty disappointed to learn that my character isn’t suited for the rigous and emotional stamina required for true-blue entrepreneurship. I’m a born researcher. I was made to sit in the library for 8 hours at a stretch and seive through mountains of data to get this result or write up that thesis. I actually enjoy stuff like that. I enjoy learning very much, especially fields of mathematics (it’s the drilling part that’s boring). – Hardwork doesn’t cut it. Drilling and drilling is no longer an efficient strategy in university. I will never subscribe to the belief that there’s not enough time; there’s always time. It’s only how we use it. The first 7 weeks saw me reiterating JC strategies of simply tackling problems with brute force of hardwork; and I didn’t even get myself very fantastic grades. So, cliched as it sounds, I had to learn to work smart. It’s an extremely dubious thing to say, but the amount of effort required to get a B or an A is about the same as the amount of effort required to get a D (or, God forbid, an F); I simply learnt to give what professors were looking for instead of trying to deliver a truckload of unnecessary information. – All in all, I’ve still got a lot to learn; the more I learn, the more I realize I don’t know.


To recap, my objectives stated in the 1st journal are: to understand and able to apply the topics taught, participate actively in class, pay attention to presentations, and finally, to study hard for the exam.

I felt that I have achieved most of my objectives. This week marked the end of TWC lessons, and TWC is definitely something that I will miss. I was kept interested throughout the class as the lessons were carried out in an interactive way. Instead of you standing there and ‘˜preaching’ to us, you let us do our own research, and present our findings. We also had discussions and had the chance to clarify any doubts. Indeed, such a way of teaching enabled me to absorb more and also, to actually understand and come to know more things that I usually will not come into contact with (eg. Researching about infringement of IPR, ill effects of technology). Hence, I understand and am able to apply the topics learnt as we have case studies. My biggest takeaway from TWC classes, other than the knowledge about innovation, is the ability to present and voice my opinions at ease infront on the class. I remembered I had to do a presentation in Week2 with a group that I barely knew. We survived it though, and had lots of fun! Throughout the weeks, we were given the chance to present our findings and express our opinions on others’ presentations. This week’s presentation was fun for me. I had great groupmates and I no longer feel intimidated for nervous when presenting in front of a big group. And of couse, I learnt a lot of other groups’ presentations. I could have participated more in class. At times I would find myself so engrossed in listening to the discussions that were going on (during QnA sessions) that I forgot to ask my questions! The last lap is the exam, I hope to be able to perform well. To be able to do that, I will ‘internalise’ the knowledge learnt, instead of just memorizing my textbook.

Last but not least, Thank you for your guidance and friendliness. I have definitely benefited from your unique way of teaching!


Yes I believe that I have achieved my goals to a large extent

For all the lessons, Prof has gone through chapters from the book. Although I didn’t learn much from the book regarding case studies, I did learn a lot from the presentations. For each lesson, a group had to choose an innovator and they covered his history and incorporated textbook knowledge. I believe that through this I have learnt a lot on different innovators and innovations. In addition to this, for my own presentations on Sony, Zara and Facebook, I learnt even more. In preparation for the presentation, I was forced to do research on these companies. The kind of innovation they did, they’re approaches and their setbacks. Without this course, I would not have acquired any of this knowledge. Furthermore, I benefited from the 4 guest speakers during the last few weeks of the course. It was great to have perspectives from people who have gone through the business world. I especially learnt a lot from the doctor. He gave me insights on the setting up of a company and why studying in university was important.

I have not told you yet, but my personal ambition in life is to set up a goat farm. But, even though I learnt a lot on innovations, it has little to do with goats and farms. Maybe it has given me an idea to put technology to increase efficiency when setting up a farm. What this course has told me was that financing and finding a partner is very crucial for the survival of the business.

I have also learnt how to work in groups. This was largely possible because of the presentations that were assigned. Because of the preparation needed, I had to meet up with my group on a regular basis. This helped me learn how to work in a group. Although I can say that I have worked in this group, I did not experience so much problems and conflicts since the tasks assigned were rather easy. On top of that I had an easy team. In terms of conflict management in a group, I did not excel in it because I wasn’t presented with an opportunity. But in terms of team effectiveness, I learnt quite a lot. I learnt that I can work well with people who are self driven because most of my group members were self driven.

I learnt to do better presentations and to have the confidence to speak in front of audiences. I had 2 presentations. I could still remember the 1st presentation I did. I was nervous and rushed through my part of the presentation. A reason for that was because my team had a time limit. But because of that, I compromised on the points I had to bring across to the audience. I stuttered on my lines and forgot some of my points. I learnt from my first presentation to speak slowly and organize my thoughts down. The 2nd presentation was fantastic. I took the lessons I learnt and applied it to the 2nd presentation on face book. As a result, I felt that my speech was clearer and the points were brought across more clearly as compared to the first presentation. In this aspect, I’ve achieved my goal.

I also managed to handle stress due to assignments on datelines. This was made possible by in-class presentation. At first, I hated this presentation. But then, when I looked on the bright side of it, I realized that it could be beneficial. I learnt to cope with the stress level. I found out in the corporate world, you have to manage this kind of stress because the work presented to you is very similar and you have to rush to meet the dateline. As the weeks progressed, I became less stress when there was the break-out period. Yes, as compared to the first week and the last week, I would say that I have accomplished my goal to handle stress. Lastly, I have accomplished the goal of not being afraid to speak up and ask questions. I would say I have tried my best to bombard the professor and groups with questions. And these questions were genuine questions I wanted answered. They were not questions just to gain participation points. In this aspect, I’m glad that I’ve participated because it truly benefited me. On the other side, during some lessons I was still afraid to ask questions. For example, the lessons on patents, copyrights and license. I was still unsure on these issues and I would really want to know more about it. Prof, if you have the time, I would appreciate it if you could sit down and tell me everything you know about it. To add on, I am still doubtful on the lesson on the stocks and listed companies. Maybe it was due to time factor and my knowledge regarding these issues that I was afraid to ask questions. But all in all, I did accomplish most of the tasks that I set out initially.

I’ve heard stories on TWC being useless, but I beg to differ. I can safely say that I have learnt things and skills outside the textbook that will be necessary in the future. Even though this module was designed to be dry, you made it interesting for me to stay awake for all the lessons. It was one of the most enjoyable modules this semester. To add on, for a course that was only one semester long, I’ve gain so much than I expected. ThankYou.


After going through 13 weeks with this module, I believe that I have achieved a lot from this course. I understood what is innovation, how is innovation different from invention. I also learned about different types and forms of innovation as well as had opportunities to hear from our guest speakers sharing their valuable experiences. I believe comparing with my first journal, I have achieved my objectives, and these lessons that I have learned throughout this course will be very helpful for me and my career in the future.


I would that that it is a resounding YES to that ‘“ Throughout the course of the module, I have been exposed to numerous real-life aspects of innovations as well as a myriad of theoretical knowledge that have satisfied my thirst for knowledge and in doing so, helped me achieve the objectives I have set up in the first lesson/journal.

In the first journal, I mentioned being able to acquire knowledge on how entrepreneurships operate and how they generally fit into the big picture of commerce, products, services and processes. And in this aspect, I would safely say that the exposure arising from this module has benefited me a great deal.

Aside from the invaluable treasure chest of wealth of knowledge found in the textbook (detailing issues like how entrepreneurships gain funding for their innovations and the steps leading to a successful exploitation of innovations), the in-class presentations and research presentations have been of great interest. Topics ranging from how local entrepreneurs struggle and succeed against the odds, to the rampant flouting of copyrights in China have hit home, the reality of the theory we learn from the textbook.

Worthy of mention is the understanding I have gained. Whenever I come across articles in the newspaper or read about success stories of innovators, I understand the numerous tedious steps that were taken before products are even placed on the shelves. I understand the significance of combined technological and commercial knowledge involved in innovation, the numerous funding and operating hurdles one has to go through before revenues are generated. And to this effect, I am reminded of this whenever I assess Facebook or visit Zara retail stores.

Therefore, I would like to conclude by saying that I have achieved more than the objectives I have set out to do in the first lesson. I have been able to critically examine real-life situations and picked up a vast reservoir of knowledge as well as lessons from them. I have been fortunate enough to see the practical side of things and in doing so, gained more than the conventional knowledge from merely reading books.


I think I may not have fully successful in achieving my goal I have set in the first journal. My goal was to gain as many information as I can and be up dated with technological improvement. Although I haven’t been a truly ‘technical’ person who knows about every new gadget launched in market and understand how it works, I feel some changes in my behavior toward technology. To be honest, I used to hate technology, I often said to my dad who is very knowledgeable about technology, “I don’t care about technology, technology is not meant for girls and I am not going to an engineering school.’� I never had any interest in learning about technology and considered IT is just not for me. Yet after going to SMU, and especially after attending TWC class, I realize that technology has shift the business so much that it is merely impossible for me to become a successful entrepreneur without at least knowing and utilizing technology in business. Actually I was a bit worried after hearing how impactful technology is to business and that I am very bad in technical things and know nothing about it. This course has shade a new perspective of technology to me in that now I realize the strong impact of technology in business. This course has arisen the interest of technology and IT especially in me. The biggest shift that I feel is that I started to grow willingness in exploring and utilizing technology after knowing the importance of technology. It would seem that I have not acquired highly technical skill, however in my opinion, it’s not what I have learnt is the most important thing I have achieved after this TWC course, to me what is more important is that there is such a big change in my mindset and interest in technology. In fact, I still think that I have gained a lot through out my first 5 months in SMU. For instance, I knew nothing about email, msn, etc and video editing when I was in my home town. I remembered the time when I sent email to SMU registrar office to accept offer from SMU, my dad did it for me. Now I have learnt a lot and I can do video editing also. It may sounds simple for others but it is such a big achievement for me. Therefore, I think I have learnt a lot and partially achieved my goal and expectation through this TWC course and I still want to learn more about technology. I hope that maybe someday become an expert in term of technology and can make technology become a helper in my future career.


In week 1, I believe my objectives were:

1.To learn how technology can benefit the business and society 2.Use that knowledge and create something out of it 3.To know the next big technology

Through this course, I believe I have achieved all of it and more. I have personally learnt how technology changed the world and there is a difference between an inventor and an innovator. The key difference is just that the innovator knows how to commercialize their invention. Technology have benefited us in so many ways, today’s most popular technology is all about networking and group knowledge. The web is now the dominant force and with website like facebook and wikipedia, knowledge is abundant and friends can be kept in touch 24/7.

I have personal took what I have learnt from facebook and came out with a business idea which my friends and I are working on currently. Just for this journal only, it is about providing people free surveys to do and they will get paid cash for every survey they complete online. From what I have learnt from facebook, it is extremely important to make your website sticky and let people keep on coming back to your site constantly. Facebook main revenue is advertisement. My business idea is also base on that too with a more define market as they filled up the information that my clients and I need to know. From here I will be able to get 3 sources of revenue, surveys, advertisement and market research.

To know the next big technology, I believe today’s class touched on it with the touch screen table and I am deeply impressed by what it can do in the future. It makes technology so much more personal and interactive. I am looking forward to the future to see what new technology that would revolutionize the world after the world wide way.

I have also benefited from the pressure and panic modes that we had to go through to prepare 5 slides in 30 minutes and I learnt a lot by presenting. I learnt a lot from Professor Lim and I’m thankful that she is able to share her experience as a technical entrepreneur that she brings to the class every week. It is valuable to me as one day I’m going to face the same issues as her when I have my own company in the future.

Thank you Professor Lim for all that you have done! Appreciate it and get well soon!


During the course of the module, I feel that I have not only achieved my objectives but broaden and diversified my perspectives as well.In the first journal, the objectives i had in mind was to learn how to identify which technologies are worth pursuing for economic gains as well as gaining the foresight for lubractive technologies. On the learning of theory, these objectives were met within the first few weeks. However, much experience on practical application is required in various industries are required in order to master this foresight and decision making skills. But, during the course of the module, I have learnt that managing the processes of commercializing technology, progressive development of existing technologies and ideas as well as when and where to launch products have proved to be as important as identifying the sparks of these ideas. Especially since these points are related or indirectly related to my objectives, I had to diversify my view and broaden my scope of study to focus not just on what technologies to study on but also to include how techologies should be developed and when they should be developed or when they no longer hold any future economic benefits. I found the medium of teaching in this class very effective as I have been able to learn much more than what is from the textbook as learning has been focus on research as well as peer learning. I found that having a professor who actually has generous real world knowledge to share as well as the chance to interact with has enabled me to learn beyond what I have set out to do and allow me to view many perspectives at a different angle. The course coupled with many speakers in different fields has also given me real life personal experiences for me to analyse what can be learnt from and improved upon as well as an insight of the harsh reality of what the corporate world is all about. Hence, I feel that I have largely achieved the objectives set up and in order to fully achieve the objective, the next step that I must take would be to step into the corporate world and actually experience it.


In my first journal, the objective that I set out to achieve was aims to better understand the idea of innovations, innovations themselves, the impact of these and how they can be managed and utilized. I had also aimed to achieve these by actively participating and questioning. I feel that I have achieved most of these objectives. For instance, I have definitely learned about the managing of innovations ‘“ from the steps involved in filing patents, the obstacles, the amount of effort and funds needed, the ways to fund innovations, ways to ensure the viability and the survival of your innovation, going up against the big guys in the industry and much more important aspects of innovation. In addition, I have also learned much about the characteristics of innovators that have enabled them to succeed. These were achieved through reading up on about the backgrounds of innovators, the obstacles they faced and how they overcame these, the funding organizations and the local intellectual property procedures outside of class and the in-class research that we did.

Moreover, I did feel I had achieved the objectives of learning about the economic and social effects of innovations though not explicitly. For instance, when we learned about ancient innovations, we learned about the effects they had socially. For example, when we learned about the invention of writing instruments and the impact it had on the Chinese and the Egyptians.


After I finished this course, I realized that my original perception of it is wrong. I used to think that TWC is a science theory module which teaches us technology knowledges. But actually, Technology and World Change is a course about innovation, and all the things relate to innovation process. Such as how to commercialize innovative new product; how to develop new product; how to be a technical entrepreneur, and etc.

Contends of this module are interesting and engaging, and I’ve obtained important knowledges in technical and business world. For example, though I know IPR before, I didn’t know the details about it, such as, how to apply for patent right, register for copy right and so on. Others, as R&D taken by corporations, development of new product, commercialization of new product and business strategy, all of them teach me something. TWC gives me an over vision of what technical’”business world looks like. In fact my father is a technical entrepreneur. I used to hear him talked about his work such as doing the research for new product, applying for patent right and finding companies to collaborate. However, I could not link them together at that time. Now I can totally get his work details and maybe, I can use the knowledges I learned to help him to do his business. :)ï�Š

Except the contends, I’ve learned a lot from all the other objects involved in this class. Innovation of presentation, for instance, I think all the presentations done in our class are interesting and innovative. And I can clearly see the innovative level goes higher and higher, which, people’s ideas become brighter and brighter. Since everybody want their presentation to be more interesting than the last one. So does our presentation skills improved. Besides, my fellow classmates are really active. They ask questions and impress their thoughts freely in the class; the quality is which I always want to gain. The topics developed from our course content various from our daily life to science industry. Although I did not say much in class, such active atmosphere activated my desire to talk in class. I think I just need some time to overcome language barrier. :)ï�Š

Last but not least, I’m really glad about being in this class. The perception is so different from my friends in other classes described to me. Thank you prof. 🙂


Indeed I have learnt a lot through this course, from that of textbook as well as from the many interesting experiences and perspectives imparted by especially Prof Lim, and the guest-speakers. Certainly I have a better comprehension of technology, innovation and entrepreneurship, its application in today’s world, with the many present situations and cases shared in class. In-class presentations ensured that I was constantly engaged, and got everyone to read up on other related materials based on the topic of the week. Then sharing the different researched companies for instance to the entire class widen my knowledge further and allowed me to relate theories to current businesses and issues. The objective of acquiring insights had definitely been achieved. In terms of having improved communication skills and building on confidence for presentations, apart from the graded presentation and the case study, weekly in-class presentations have made me more comfortable with talking in front of the class. However, I am still rather reserved in participating in class. Other than that my objectives of dealing with time constraints and working as a group has definitely been achieved as I have learnt to prioritize and work fast, at the same time being able to listen to others ideas and incorporating my own. I have learnt much more than what I had set out to achieve through this TWC course, having gained lifelong skills. Much of them applicable and beneficial in future courses, and especially in real workplace situations.


Through this class, i feel that i have become more confident in terms of presentation. I could still remember my voice trembling the first time i presented. However, given all the opportunities in class, i feel that i have become more vocal. Though i may not participate much in class discussion, i have learnt to voice out my opinions in project meetings and i believe that i would be even more confident in speaking up in my classes next term.

As for feedback, i am no longer afraid of negative opinions and i am trying to learn from my mistake. One of my classmates pointed out that i tend to move around alot when i present and since then, i have tried to cut down on that.

In short, i feel that i have improved alot through this lesson in terms on presentation skills. I have learnt that a presentation not only has to have content but it also has to be interesting as well. With that, i always attempt to be more creative when it comes to presentation.


I realised that while I may now have the theoretical knowledge of innovation and the business behind innovation, I can only be an opportunist technical entrepreneur because I have little or no training of technology.

I may think big – have lofty ideas of how I could expand my online business community or design an innovate product to first market to my peers, then teachers, then the whole society, but I feel that right now, I do not have that drive and energy to pursue completely with my ideas and also balance the student life I have right now.

However, through this module, I did learn about different aspects that we can approach to understand how society has changed with the changes in technology and with the many cases, it is often encouraging to see how little someone knows, like OneClick Technologies Ltd founder, but through work experience and time, begin an exciting and fulfilling journey of innovation and doing something that you can rightfully say its yours.

What I think I have taken through this module is not just factual knowledge but rather, the encouragement and motivation that I need to keep on going. Whatever ideas I may have, technology related or not, I think being an technical entrepreneur or an entrepreneur are so closely related that I can apply many principles I’ve learnt here into other industry sectors. Face it, not everyone can produce an innovative technology and successfully patent it – but what we can do is create products/designs/ideas of our own and develop them – doesn’t have to be a year or two, but a life long process and even if there is little success, that alone can be quite fulfilling to oneself.

I’m challenged to not just innovate, but also to support ideas of great innovation. I may not be an entrepreneur but with the money I make, I do wish to chance upon a great innovation and be a part of the success and the building platform of something world shaking to the technology community. It is quite interesting to understand how business angels become business angels and how venture capitalists remain as venture capitalists as I always wonder how it feels to be one and part of the society that encounters the rapidly changing demands of society today. That curiousity keeps me going, even as this module comes to a close and I think I probably did achieve something out of the lessons by having the curiousity to always keep ahead of changing technologies and understand how the world is changing with such technological advancement.


Throughout this course, the comminication ability of mine really improved. Especially after the mid-term, I took active role in the in-class presentation’s preparation and participation, although I still did not do well in the class participation. Moreover, the point is that I benefited a lot from those class-presentations and working with my group and enjoyed a lot. Overall, I’d say that, I got a lot from this course both the knowledge and the skills working in group. The objectives were partialy achieved, but I will still try hard to overcome my weakness in order to transform myself in SMU.


I objectives that I set out to achieve after the first class have been attained to a large extent. In my first learning journal I had mentioned that I wanted to learn how technology has made people think or do things in different ways. How it has set a generation apart from another? How is it that me my father and my grandfather did the same thing differently because of the prevailing technology of the times. wanted to learn how under technology has mankind flourished and been destroyed.

I have achieved my objectives to a large extent because of 2 main things that during the duration of this course. The first is the two presentations that my group had to make and second are the discussions that took place in class.

My first presentation was on comparing two companies and illustrating their main source of innovation. Although the presentation we made was about Samsung and KFC, what I learnt from the presentation was that how as the world progressed the sources of innovation of the two companies changed. For example, how KFC’s source of innovation changed from individual to users in the 21st century. This gave me an idea that advacements in technology had made it so much easier to do business in other countries that to remain competitive companies had to change the way they do business and concentrate on what their users need. This showed me how it is possible that according to the prevailing technology of the time, people and businesses had to change their way of doing things. Just because that is how things are done at that particular time. That is the reason why I use an electric shaver while my father used a blade and my grandfather scissors to trim our beard. The simple reason being that that is how it is done. Technology or the lack of it at any point in history convinced people of a certain ways to live life. And to me that is the most fasinating thing about technology.

During class discussions, we came across numerous examples of how mankind has both flourished and destroyed because of technology. There was a big argument is class about what facebook and google have done to the world today. I personally believe that they have brought human civilization to a whole new level. I believe that whatever little ill effects they may have there is no denying that they have brought people closer to each other. And it has always been my belief that that is what technology or any other thing be it an organisation or a thought should aim at. Bringing people closer to each other.

This class has taught me a lot of things I didnt know about and also reinforced everything I stood for before I entered the first class of Technology and World Change.


Basically, I feel I achieved most of the goals I set up in the beginning of this course.

First of all, I understood numerous technology theories and phenomena, especially how to explore innovation. Before I learned this course, I thought innovation was inborn and cannot be learned. However, now I think innovation and creativity are something that could be learned, improved and sharpened.

Furthermore, in this course, there’s something different from other TWC classes. I am not only learned technology strategy, innovation policy and other book knowledge we could find by ourselves but also something really important for us in the future, like the presentation skills and communication ability. During this course, I spoke a lot in the class and improved a lot as well in this interesting class. Though sometimes I felt nervous, weak and even disoriented, however, I realized my body and mind strengthened pretty much when I overcame these problems.

In addition, I think this course makes me have a global and wise view to consider the whole world. I even haven’t expected this kind of benefit in the beginning. It makes me think how my country should do in the intellectual property rights, where I should stand to help my country win this global economy competition and so on.

Finally, I am trying to say that this course really helps me a lot and I achieved the goals I set in the very beginning. Thanks Prof Lim and TA’s kind help for making me difference in this three months. I really appreciate it and will do my best in the future.


In the first lesson, my objective was to learn how technology empowers us and affects our daily life, how it can either benefit or cripple us and the world through interactions and learning from my peers and the professor. At the end of the day, I think I did achieve the objectives that I put down in black and white, but what I failed to see in the first lesson is the more obvious life applications from the course.

Through the entire course, I had some very interesting insights on technology, its effects and its business applications. I learnt a lot from the group presentations and from the experience prof. has to offer. I learnt about some of the qualities that a technical entrepreneur should possess, about IPOs, about intellectual property rights, the various categories that an entrepreneur can fall under, about funding issues, institutional support and so much more. From these however, I also realised that I unknowingly learnt what prof. termed life skills ‘“ how presentations should be done, how information should be presented etc. Sitting through the numerous presentations done by my peers and the guest speakers, I learnt through experiencing what body language should be avoided during presentations, what would attract the attention of the audience etc. That is not to say that learning about technology is not important, but the knowledge I learn today might not be applicable for life, especially since the technology industry is fast-paced. Knowledge is important, but you can never know enough. The skills however would stay with me for life; they are applicable in other aspects of my life as well.


Yes, I believe that I have achieved the objectives I set up in the first lesson. One of my objectives is to gain an in-depth understanding of the topic we’ll be covering. I believe that the way the curriculum was taught has enabled me to gain a deeper understanding on innovation, in addition to textbook knowledge. The in-class presentations that are held every week on a particular area have provided me with opportunities to conduct research and find out more about innovation issues from the net and through the presentations by my peers. Also, I had gained much valuable insights from the 4 guest speakers that were invited to present in our TWC classes. By sharing their experiences with the class, it enabled me to relate the theories that we learnt in class to real-life examples, which I feel is very useful. In my first journal, I also mentioned that I hope to learn to adapt to working with people from diverse backgrounds and cultures, as my team has 3 international students. Although it was quite difficult working together as a team initially due to some communication problems, I am happy to say that we have overcame the communication barriers that we faced and came out of our comfort zones to adapt to one another’s differences in working styles. I do admit that I did have some perceptual biases towards international students at the start. But after working with my team mates, I realized that there is actually much that we can learn from them. For example, I have learnt more about China from one of my team mates, Patrick. The numerous opportunities that enabled my team to work together have helped to draw us closer. On the last day of the TWC class, we even took pictures together in remembrance of our TWC group! Although this module is about Technology and World Change, I felt that I have learnt more than just about innovation. I have also learnt about working together as a team and accepting my team mates for their strengths and weaknesses. In addition, I feel that my presentation skills have improved too.


My objective in this course is to get to know better about the world of technology, innovation and its business relevance. After participating in the 13 weeks of TWC class, I believe I have achieved this objective of deepening my knowledge.

I learned a lot about business in technology through the in-class and group presentation which obviously challanged my curiosity to learn new things independently through extensive research. The journal helps to express my learning in this course.

I am grateful to have the opportunity to listen from some of the experienced technopreuners to share their invaluable knowledge and business strategy to me. From them, I learn how to deal with filing patents, finding funds, anticipating competition, etc. (all the necessary knowledge needed as an entrepreuner)

Similarly, the interactive class discussion I am engaged in has helped me a lot to think critically. By discussing and listening questions from others, I gained thoughts and ideas from the rest of the class. This has significantly improved and enhanced my learning experience in this course.

With my goal to learn more about the world of technology and its business relevance achieved, I think I feel better equipped to face the ever-changing business world.


After 13 weeks of TWC lessons, and now looking back to the first weekly journal I wrote. I am glad to say that I have gained a lot of knowledge from this course not just about technology but also business strategies, intellectual property right and the different sources of innovations. And one very important and precious lesson I took away is presentation skills, this is not from the textbook but from the numbers of presentations that we have in class. It’s really a different experience compared to my other modules. I start to realize that presentation skill is very important in the business world. Not just being able to speak well but also able to catch the attention of the audience for the whole presentation. Like what Prof Lim has said it is very important to be able to present one’s idea. And come to think of it, being a technopreneur not only must one have the knowledge in that field but definitely one must be able to present and market his ideas to the public. I guess in some sense I am one step closer to being a technopreneur. There are definitely other areas that I have to work hard on if one day I decide to be a technopreneur.


In my first journal, i laid out 2 objectives that i hope to achieve through this course. Firstly, I hope to gain wide knowledge. After attending 13 lessons of TWC, i can proudly say that i definitely have gained much more knowledge not only about TWC but also on other general issues. Secondly, i hope to take away with me effective presentation skills. I must say that Prof’s lesson is a platform for us to present our ideas and findings. However i feel that it may at times be not as effective as planned because most of the time, in-class presentations are very short and time is a crucial factor, which sort of made presentations a little slip-shot. Nonetheless, these practises do help improve my presentation skills. Hence, i feel that i have achieved my objectives set up in the first journal, and much thanks go to Prof, Martin and all classmates!!


The objectives set in the 1st journal included improvements to my presentation skills and learning about the inspirations behind the innovators. By large both objectives have been met through this course.

Through the weekly in-class presentations, I’ve been able to learn from the better presenters from our class weekly. I’ve learnt about the importance of using visual aids like videos and pictures to make my point clearer, and have learnt how to use variations in my tone, and making good eye contact from good communicators like Jamie and Samantha.

I have made use of what I have learnt in this area during my group’s presentations and in my other presentations. And seeing the audience respond positively has increased my confidence.

Also from the weekly exposure to the various aspects of innovations from the break out sessions has given me a broader understanding of the work the innovators do as well as their sources of innovation, which I have come to understand can be different for every innovator.

What I have learnt from this course has made me appreciate the efforts put in by innovators, their successes and failures, and how they have overcome various obstacles to reach their goals.


In my opinion, I believe that I have gained more than what I have first set out to achieve from my first lesson.

My first objective was to better prepare myself to adapt to the pace technology and society, as a whole, is changing. After going though the course, I have a better understanding of the different theroies behind innovation and have come to realise the steps in which to make an innovation successful. As such, I have very much achieved this objective.

My second objective was to be a better speaker during presentations. I felt that the constant exposure to presentations class after class has made it more possible for me to think on the spot to answer questions given by the floor. I have also learnt many techniques to better prepare myself and speak with the audience during the presentation. Therefore, I too feel that I have achieved this during the course of the module.

I shall now refer to my last objective, to learn how to efficiently and effectively research on topics with a tight timeframe. Throughout the course, we had to give in-class presentations almost weekly. This improved my time management significantly as it was not easy to squeeze researching and preparing for the slides into such a short time frame. In addition, I have learnt of many sources to carry out my research from. It is of no doubt that I, too, have achieved this objective.

However, the gains that I have gotten most is not from the objectives I have set out to achieve. From this module, I have come to gain valuable information from real life examples of how business works from the experience of both Prof. Lim and the various external speakers that came over to give talks. These experiences will no doubt prove to be essential should I venture into the working society and attempt to start a business myself in the future.

All in all, I feel that I have gained quite a lot from my TWC journey and feel that I would remember the things I have learnt from it for a long, long time.


In lesson 1, I mentioned that I hope to learn on how the knowledge of technology can be better applied to the business sector so as to emerge more innovations. After 12 weeks of intensive theories and break out research sessions done, I indeed learn that technology could be applied extensively across all businesses. In fact, it is technological advancement which better facilitates the rapid diversification of businesses world wide. One example would be how the use of the internet could allow for e-commerce, which is an increasing common concept. It allows normal individuals like me to start up an internet based business such as selling of accessories or clothes through web-pages and blogs. This is unlike the past where a proper shop front is required to start a business. Through the various concepts taught such as how to file for patents and funding solutions, it allows me to understand how to protect my Intellectual Property Rights should I decide to innovate. In fact, protection of IP is so important that it could jeopardize all your concepts if it is not taken seriously. The various funding solutions taught gave me more insight on which organizations I could approach for start-up funds should I lack resources such as approaching Economic Development Board, or venture-capital firms. The various research on successful technical entrepreneurs like Mr Henn Tan and classic examples like Steve Jobs provides me with stronger motivation as I could see how determined they were in pushing for their innovations. From these aspects, I indeed learnt the various implications and applications of technology.

As for the development of my creativity that I mentioned in Week 1 as well, I learnt a very important lesson. I should never undermine my own strengths since creativity and opportunities are everywhere. It is a matter of whether I am sensitive and determined enough to look out for it, just like how successful entrepreneurs are able to do. With this foresight and ability to observe trends, improvement solutions could be derived from existing products and services. Thus, I would definitely practice what I learnt through this course by keeping a sharp eye on things. This is definitely one good way for me to develop my creativity.


I would say that I am fairly successful in my objectives. In my first journal, I set myself out to see how companies can leverage on technologies to be successful in their respective industries. To-date, I have come across enough examples to gain sufficient insight on how a company may get ahead of its industrial peers, in terms of competitive innovation.

Foremost, one of the best ways for companies to gain from innovation is by bringing in innovators from the public domain. This is essentially tapping on the vast pool of potential ‘outsider/user’ innovators, who are on the other hand, looking for financing opportunities. Thus, it becomes a win-win situation; the incumbant firms gain an innovative edge, and the innovator gets the reward for his/her ingenuity. An example is P&G, where it actively solicits inventions or innovations from the public, and then it will take on the main task of production, distribution, marketing and other business functions. This business model allows P&G to have an extensive range of products in the market, and enable it to be a global market leader in mass consumer products.

Secondly, timely filing for IPs, especially patents, are crucial to harnessing the maximum benefits from innovations. If the innovation is launched before the patent’s secured-date is confirmed, chances are that the innovation is likely to arise imitations from competitors. This will make legal proceedings complicated, if ever the original innovator wishes to sue the imitators. Thus, learning from Mr Gurcharan’s talk, it is important to make strategic decisions on the patent filing and product launch, as this has bearing on the competitive position of the originator’s company. Timely filings of IPs would ensure minimum delay in proceedings if ever a legal battle is fought.

Third and most importantly, companies who are known to be churning out innovations consistently, are often the ones whose corporate culture champions innovation. The culture adopted has to be conducive and encouraging for the employees, so that they can harness the creativity and vibrancy within the organization. This usually results in many innovative outcomes. For instance, 3M and Google allows their employees to set aside a portion of their working time to pursue their own research interests. This often results in innovative products such as Post-Its and the family of Google applications respectively. Apple is also well-known for its innovative products, such as iPod and iMac, and is the consequence of its innovation-driven culture. Hence, an innovative culture is profoundly powerful in the innovative process.

In summary, the three insights I have gained are – innovation can come from the external environment, timely filing of IPs is crucial to innovative success, and innovative corporate culture is a key ingredient for companies to be innovative.

I would say these constitutes the tip of the iceberg; there are possibly many ways in which companies can have a leading edge in innovation. What is important is that I have have a set of timeless strategies to augment my future knowledge of technology – through printed articles, news and electronics trade shows. These will sufficiently place me in the knowledge loop of the latest technological development in the world.


In my opinion, the objectives I had myself set up in the first lesson seemed to have differed from the original objectives of this course since in my first journal I had stated that I had expected to learn more about the technological developments in the world and how it had progressed. But in the course of this module it seemed to be clear that this course was not what I had expected but instead it turned out to be something beter than that. All the information and knowledge gained from this course has made a deep impact on the way I think about business and innovations. Since I did not know much about about innovations I did not realize their importance of them in businesses and our lives. In short this course has given me a new insight into the various possiblities.


Yes, totally agree that I have reached my objectives in this course. TWC is the course I like most, for true. In this course, we did a lot of presentations, both the in-class one and the prepared group presentation. I thought my presentation skills improved a lot, I knew how to present something innovative or my product to my boss or my potential customers, and furthermore, throughout this course, I learnt a lot about innovation and technology and their related things, which were quite interesting and useful as well. I became more aware of what technology has played in the progress of our everyday life!


I think i get improvements during this course. From the textbook, the topic question for the in-class presentation, and the personal experience from the prof, I now get a better and clear idea about the technology and relevant information. Additionally, i gain experience and confidence in the presentation. Watching different types and ways of presentation helps develop my creative thinking. I think i get more than what I expected, though the process sometimes is tough. As prof said, technology is changing quite fast, even this course finished, we can not stop our steps.We should keep informed.


The various objectives that I have set out in the first journal and how I have met it are as follows:

i) Learn from the past and current businessman, in order not to repeat their mistakes and use their success story as an inspirational tool: The in-class discussion and presentations has given me numerous case studies of failed businesses that provided me with a better understanding on how to safeguard the company’s innovation. The class has also provided successful cases where businesses flourished due to the ingenuity of the innovator and this acts as a motivational tool. ii) Improvement in presentation skills: I was given numerous opportunities to present in class and this exposure helped me improve my oratory techniques that boosted my confidence in giving presentations.

In addition to my objectives, I have received valuable insights on the running of business in the real world through the interactive discussion with Professor Lim. Moreover, the experience which she shared with us regarding her business also provided me with even a greater determination to further explore the idea of entrepreneurship.

In overall, I have gained more than what I initially expected.


When I wrote my first journal quite a few weeks back, I outlined two major, but very broad-scoped objectives that I hoped to achieve by the end of the semester. One, that through this course I would gain a better insight on the relationship between the scientific and corporate worlds. Two, that coming from a science background in studies, I will understand the workings of business strategies better.

I can say that I was fairly accurate in pinpointing my first objective as something to be gained from TWC, as this is what the subject centres upon. TWC stresses the fact that neither scientific research nor corporate undertakings alone will forward society but in fact both of them together will be useful in the progress of mankind. This course taught me many useful things, among them some important distinctions. First and foremost our professor pointed out to us the differences and at the same time important links that exist between invention and innovation; invention being a subset of the innovative process. Then she gave us the distinction between science and technology, showing us that science is mainly gaining an understanding of the workings of nature whereas technology is improving and expanding what humankind can do with nature. It was important to realize where such distinctions existed because people often tend to generalize or use words such as invention/innovation or science/technology in the same context. In fact, we should realize that these things are different realms of human investigation that usually go hand in hand with each other. More than distinguishing between generalizations, as my learning objective stated, TWC was also about explaining the similarities and coherence existing between fields and careers which are usually assumed to be worlds apart. Through this course I discovered that invention, which involves technological advances and insights, are the first step of innovation, and also that invention is directly followed by strategies such as marketing, mass production and diffusion; strategies of the business world. Usually inventions are percieved to be the realm of scientists and engineers working in research laboritories, and well away from the stock market and Wall Street. However, it is not so, because all successful corporations base their income on products, services or processes which are invented or discovered or derived in research labs.

The course also taught me a lot of details about technology and the innovations process. It gave me insight into terms that a person hears everyday, but hardly has any solid knowhow of. For example, the topic on intellectual property was refreshing as it taught me the different kinds of inherent and registered property rights that exist, and the benefits of each type. It also allowed me to study cases of individuals and companies in order to exemplify technological topics like sources of innovation and process of innovation. These case studies not only highlighted how the theory relates to real life, but also helps in getting to know in detail the technological innovations one hears about vaguely but knows little about.

As far as meeting objectives, I think I have more than accomplished what I set out to learn through this module since it has taught me ‘oversufficiently’ about the innovations process, and technology typification. More importantly, it has allowed me to view technology with measure, to organize and differentiate its different aspects so as to better analyze it and take full advantage of the benefits it has to offer the world.


I would say that I have achieved most of my objectives set out in the first journal. I have gained a whole new insight on technology and innovation. In addition, I found that what we have learnt can be seen and also be applied to our daily life. I have realized that technology has impacted our lives greatly! For example, Ipod is seen as a norm in today’s context. Before I attended this module, all these were subconscious in my mind and I am glad that this course provided me the platform to realize that there are cutting-edge technology and innovations that are changing the world. I was interested in entrepreneurship all along and this course allowed me to have a deeper understanding of the obstacles faced and offered much enlightenment that may help me in the future if I set up my own business. The guests speakers, like Dr Cliff Go, reinforced my understanding on entrepreneurship and I have gained a lot of knowledge from them. I am very delighted as I have gained a lot from this course. I found joy working with my team members ( Keat Loon, Don, Shimin, Wenting & Peimun ). We delegated tasks well and we definitely had fun during lessons despite the time constraint to finish our slides! I remember the first lesson when we came to class, all of us were new and did not know what was this module really about. Then, we heard that we had to present the next lesson! We were all quite shocked but fortunately, we managed to come together and went through this process together without much hiccups. Unconsciously, they helped me overcome my fear in presenting. I appreciate Prof. Lim, your effort in making this class very interactive and I would say that I have gained much more in this manner as compared to a lecture-style of teaching.


Today is the last class of TWC. It is also the last class of my first term. Yes, I think that I have achieve the objectives that I have set up in the first lesson. I have learned some influence of technology. Some of the influences are good and some are bad. The good side is that technology also can make people’s life more convient. But the bad side is that sometimes technology may also hurt the earth such as global warming and air polution. I have also expanded my knowledge of inventors and innovators. I know much about the theories, sources and process of innovation which help me understand the meaning of innovation much better. Technology is changing our life. All of the knowledge I have gained make me think that we must be familiar with the influence of technology and make good use of it to make people’s life better. I think I have achieved what I want to learn.


I can clearly remember that what I want to achieve in this TWC module is to know Is it a good or bad phenomenon that things keep changing and changing especially in the technology world. At first, I think that those changes only make the world as the worst place to live. nowadays, everyone in the office will just look at their own PC or Laptop and will only interact with his/her colleagues when there is something really important or they will just communicate from the internet. technology also make people more and more lazy. People refuse to use stairs when there are escalators or lifts. People refuse to walk just a few meters when they drive. But after learning all the lessons in TWC class and know all the experiences all around the world, I started to believe that technology not only give a bad side, but also a good side for the world. From the TWC module, I learned that technology is also an important factor in the business world. After learning about innovation, entrepreneurs, and all the technology strategy, I started to think that without technology, the business world will not go as smoothly as it is. After all the lesson in this module, I think I’ve achieved my objectives. Now I believe that Technology, as in everything, has a good side and bad side of it.


After 13 weeks in TWC class, I realized that there is a lot of chance to become technopreneur or entrepreneur as well. I learnt a lot about technology application that I never know before such as vacuum cleaner, back2u company, second life virtual game,etc that actually came from those people who are passionate to do so although at first these ideas were impossible. And these new innovation is eventually accepted because it helps people to have a more convenient life. My first objective to learn how this technology actually works to improve human life is achieved. Not only that, I also learnt that technology actually have ill effects despite its advantages. For example, we are too reliance in it or it even can cause disease from radiation nuclear/hand phone can produced. I will not understand these kinds of things comprehensively if I’m not learning about Technology and World Change. In addition to it, I become conscious that, actually in today’s world, business are more focus on new technology especially in communication. This creates a lot of opportunity for new comer to invent something new; new ideas that people cannot think about and actually can be realized. Take a simple example of the last presentation on second life virtual game. There’s no one who can guarantee that this kind of game can be made; it’s too complicated, it’s impossible. But, it turned out that it actually CAN. This motivates me that some time your crazy ideas actually are possible to create new invention that who knows someday can turn out to be real. Being an imaginative person, I always have some crazy ideas in mind, which maybe I can work on and turned out to be success. “There’s nothing impossible” , I believe in this quote and from those technoprenuer stories that I learned in class, to be a success people, we need perseverance and strong determination on what we are going to do. Although my second objective to innovate a new innovation has not been reached, I will be always optimist that one day I can make my dream come true. It might sounds weird, but I will always try to reach my dream because ‘there’s many ways to go to Rome’. I also learnt that failure is not that we are not able to success, sometimes failure teach you a lesson to do better the next time. This TWC class really teach me a lot that I cannot describe it all by words. My soft skills and my knowledge are improved. Take an instance of presentation skill. To be honest, I always feel nervous to present in front of a lot of people and as an international student, language is a big problem. However, after a lot of short presentation, I learnt to overcome my nervousness (even though until now I still struggling on it). Before, I was so blind about technology, I just know those which have been existed for long time such as internet, but I never know that there are still a lot of technology that actually very new and ‘cool’ until I came to TWC class. From two objectives that I had set up, one has been achieved. And the other one, I hope I can achieve it one day soon. Last but not least, I am so thankful that from this TWC class I’m actually gain a lot of knowledge which definitely will be useful for my future life.


I mentioned in my first journal that i hope to be able to become more aware about technology and the effects and benefits it has on society. Indeed, having gone the course, i have managed to achieve this. Unlike in the past where i took technology for granted, i have now come to understand how the technopreneurs went through alot of pains in order to bring the technology to us. Hence, I have become more sensitive to the technology we have today. Moreover, I have understood the effects and benefits of various technologies through the class presentations that we have every week. With the information that i received from the professor, the class presentations as well as the guest speakers, i have become more equipped with the knowledge and background of many important technologies commonly seen around us such as the thumbdrive and Ipod. More importantly, other than gaining factual knowledge, i would say that i have acquired good presentation skills from the course. Indeed, being able to present well in front of an audience is very important as presentations are necessary when i enter the workforce. The way the classes were conducted has helped me to become more confident of my presentation skills. I have improved alot and learnt alot from the class through the active participation and interacting seminar style. I conclude that i have had a wonderful course and i have achieved every objective that i have set up in the first lesson.


My objectives for this lesson were to learn the impact of technology on our world today and its evolution over time. I hoped to learn how technology and innovation were related and how to optimize the use of technology in my daily life. Over the course of this module, I have learnt a lot about how technology impacts business processes and decisions. For example, Kondratiev’s long wave cycle shows us the changes in technology in society. This can help a corporation to identify the direction of technology and gear their innovations to such a direction. There are many new concepts that I have picked up in this module and they have fascinated me greatly. Hence, I feel that I have achieved my objectives in the first journal.


Yes. I believe that I have achieved my objectives set up in the first journal, and more.

Initially I had the misconception that Technology and World Change was only about innovations and inventions. That was my naive perception of the module I was about to undertake. However, as Prof. Lim corrected me, it comprises of much more than just innovations. It is about how the world is changing so rapidly and how technology is the driving force of this change. This course has opened by eyes up to the possibilities and importance of technology. Technology to me is no longer just computers and software; I now view it as a platform and tool to facilitate new innovations which will in various ways impact our ever-changing world. I feel like I view my surroundings less superfercially now, being more conscious of the behind-the-scenes time and energy which has been ploughed into things that have actually made it to become successful in the market. My entrepreneural spirit has noted that managing an idea or invention is not as simple as it looks, and that it will have to undergo many tedious steps in commercialization if it is to succeed in the competitive world out there.

Through an interactive classroom environment, I feel that I have been able to absorb the lessons better as we were made to conduct our own online research and presentations. Because we are in this way made to evaluate the infomation we find instead of simply listening to it, I am able to understand the lessons better and even brush up on my presentation skills. I also honestly feel that this class has been very different from the other classes I have attended, and that I have learnt so much more than I had expected to. For example, the session with guest speakers (Cliff Go) has provided me with a testimony of a man speaking from experience and imparting his knowledge to guide us in our future undertakings. The experiences and expertise from our professor has also given me a much wider scope of the external world, as she teaches from experience and applies the lessons in the textbook to real life situations.

Another learning point I have taken away was teamwork. As my group comprised of 4 international students it was not the easiest of tasks to work with them. However, because of the many inclass presentations and group presentations we were made to do, I feel that my communications skills have improved as I realised that messages intended are not useful unless the receivers understand them. Working with so many international students has been an exciting and interesting experience, and increased my level of understanding for the way other people from other cultures funciton.

All in all, I reaffirm the fact that I have achieved much more than what was set out for myself, and I am very glad to have been blessed with a experienced and accomplished professor to bring me through this learning journey.


Firstly, I would like to clarify the comical objective I have set up in my first lesson. I assumed and thought that this course would build up my confidence for presentation and also learn some presentation skills as pointed out by my T.A. This though a ‘œskewed’� objective, has been achieved for sure. Though there were only two major class presentations, I would proudly say that the second one was a lot better. The first presentation came as a rush. We overlooked the point of incorporating videos or a skit so as to ‘œspice’� up the presentation. Our presentation was a mere secondary school style, dull and mundane. However, the second presentation was a lot more interesting though a lot more time and effort was spent on it. But now, looking back at the presentation, I can smile and proudly say it was well done. Not just in terms of presentation itself, I have also learnt to present my points with a lot more confidence. No script was needed, voice projection was clear and most importantly, there was no fear present when standing in front of a crowd. I guess this is all due to the weekly inclass presentation that I had to do.

Every week in class, within a short time of an hour or so, we had to research on a certain topic allocated to us and present it to the class. What I enjoyed about this was the challenge posed to us. I have never been able to research on facts and present it nicely in a powerpoint presentation in such a short time. However, these weekly activities, allowed me to acquire more knowledge about technology around me. I learnt about the ill effects, the founder of thumbdrive (I always though its Kingston or Cruzer). And it also taught me that technology is not just restricted to machinery, products, it includes writing, culture. And thus, I learnt about the Egyptian culture, that they were the first to come up with paper, not China. And this, brought me to my second objective. To learn more about technology and world change. I have definitely acquired more knowledge within the short 12 weeks than over my 19 years of life. Though unrealistic it might sound, but think, how often will we surf the net and increase our general knowledge on such information. Being packed with schoolwork, one will hardly get onto the net and start reading about the inventors of the past and present. Thus the weekly inclass presentations by everyone has definitely increased my general knowledge.

I was first shocked when I knew that my professor was a lady, and a technopreneur even. To me, gadgets ought to be meddled by men since it is too complex to interest a woman. However, I realize that technology is not just about gadgets or inventing something. It covers a lot more, such as understanding the market, doing market research before launching your product, and the precaution that one has to take when filing for patent. Technology does not simply stop at the invention process. No wonder it is said that few inventions make it to the market. Changing my perspective and having a more global view of the technological market was not an objective I set up in the first lesson but nonetheless, it is a good takeaway from this course.


For knowledge My objective of this is quite indistinct and easy-achieved. I force myself to learn as much as I can. Since this course is so unfamiliar for us Chinese to learn, some of its theories are abstract and profound enough to confuse me. The only thing I can do is to try my best. Hardly can I digest all contents of the book, neither can I take in the whole lecture, I have to be lenient to myself. But this doesn’t mean I will spare my efforts to learn. I have acquired the knowledge that I can, and I give up only if the knowledge really challengs my intelligence quotient. For presentation My objective is to be a professional presenter, which means I am not panic and nervous in front of audience, and I give the presentation much the way my Singapore peers do. However, I didn’t achieve this goal. I still can’t speak fluently in front of strangers. When to face a group of strangers rather than classmates, I become timid and strained. Sweat can’t stop fluxing from my body. To totally control my tension and be professional, I have a long way to go. All in all, I did achieve some objectives, but not good enough. Maybe the circumstance is still unfamiliar for me, in other words, I am not sophisticated enough. Nevertheless, I’m always strive to achieve my goals with sweat and tears. All I need is sufficient time to prove that I’m a eligible student.


Generally measured, I achieved my objective. My objective is to improve my ability to study and research independently because no one can teach us everything. Through 14- week study, I not only obtained the methods to study innovation theories and research for current technology issues with the guide of the Prof, but improved my presentation skills which can help me show my learning to others. However, the degree I improved is not good. I wish I had been more active in the class; I wish I had had more courage to speak out my opinions; I wish I had improved my English faster. Anyway, the end of TWC is not the end of University, so I still get the chance to learn and practice more. I absolutely agree with the Prof about your opinion on presentation skills. Hiding knowledge is equal to lacking of knowledge. I will work on my English harder during this coming vocation. Prof said that international students could do well too only if they tried hard and never gave up. The world changes everyday. Through this course I learned how the change of the world and technology impact the innovation, and how innovation stimulates the business world. I will prepare more in university to face this exciting world in the future.


I have learnt more than what is technological innovation. I have learnt how to differentiate forms and types of innovation and how people make use of such innovation to set up businesses. I’ve also learnt why some innovations fail and possible problems and solutions. For example, to solve funding problems, an innovator can either list his company or source for possible investors (government funding, venture capitalists, etc). There are also many steps to take before launching of a innovation, which includes designing and pilot testing, and how different types of approach can affect the innovation process (eg: demand pull, integrated, network)Also, The in-class presentations, (though short and stressful!) are very informative and relates better to the local technology sector (IPR, IPO) than compared to the textbook. However, this semester is a little short because I couldn’t really learn more about real-world cases of how different technologies would require different strategies to produce or market.


I took away more than I expected. Not only did I achieve my objectives of understanding technological innovations and its impact on the society, environment and economy, I learnt more than that. Each week I learnt more about innovation, not merely from the textbook ‘“ Exploring Innovation which I diligently flipped through every week, but from my friends, professor and surprisingly, technology itself ‘“ the Internet.

We took some time getting used to the weekly presentations that were clearly not something we expected. From the name of the module ‘“ Technology and World Change, all of us thought that we would have to memorise every single word and sentence in the book and regurgitate the technical information in the final semester examinations that would make up the majority of our examinations.

The content of the module was too different from what I expected. I thought that we would be learning about the different types of technology together with the effects and impacts of these technologies. It turned out that I was very wrong. Innovation was definitely not technological breakthroughs but a new and different way of packaging new ideas, skills and in some cases, new technologies. I could be an innovator even if I have little or no technical skills.

Most importantly, I took on general knowledge which I believe is essential in today’s world. Protecting your creative work through Intellectual Property Rights, knowing ways to create atmosphere within your organization for growth of creative work, finding ways to finance your innovation and setting the correct path for the development of your innovation through business strategies like the Anson Product-Market Matrix. This general knowledge do not just prepare us to be technical entrepreneurs but rather to better prepare us for a world where we would require these in the business or corporate world.

In conclusion, I did not just achieve my objectives. I received more than I expected. For they say reach for the moon and if you fall, you fall between the stars. I dare say I have reached for the moon but I have gotten the entire galaxy.


The 3 main objectives I put forth, if I didn’t remember wrongly, were to: 1) Participate and have fun in class 2) Complete all assignments and projects and get good grades 3) Learn all I can to become a successful entrepreneur

For the first, I am glad to say I had great fun in class, doing presentations and being able to speak my mind and ask questions. Competitive as it was, I was rather relaxed and really enjoyed the way the lesson was run, as it allowed me to learn in an engaging way. Since this was my first sem, I was quite unused to the way classes were run in general, especially since they were a far cry from my classes in rjc, where teacher-student interaction was almost zero. Frankly, this was one of my favourite classes, partially because of the content. Next, I am also happy to say that I have faithfully completed all assignments and projects, although I wish I had done more pre-class reading. However, I was appalled at my grade for the first test, and I realised that I had read too much into the questions; which on hindsight was rather foolish. In addition, I have some brushing up to do on my concepts. This I will try to prove in the test tomorrow. Lastly, for the third point, this is what I felt I have benefited the most. Since I was attempting to start a business while studying, I had plenty of opportunities to test out what I learnt from class. However, I have to admit that I actually learnt more outside the classroom. Still, the theories and concepts provided me with a strong foundation and I am grateful for such valuable knowledge. Perhaps someday, these concepts will make more sense to me, as most of them apply to larger organisations. In conclusion, I feel that I have achieved my objectives and I really enjoyed this class. A big thank you to all who have helped me and I have my fingers crossed for the test. Cheers.


I believe that all the lessons covered up till now have been very beneficial and will prove very useful in my future endeavors. My objectives as set out previously, have largely been met. The lessons had covered not only aspects of past and present technologies, but also in detail how they were commercialized and developed. There were lessons to be learnt from case studies, so as not to repeat the mistakes. The various theories, processes and terms taught, helped me to understand what previously seemed like technical jargon. Having in class presentations help in not only encouraging self learning, but also confidence. The guests invited to speak to us really opened our minds and reinforced what we have learnt in the course. The point about having foresight, wit and risk taking appetite has been emphasized time and again. Their experiences helps us in gauging whether we have what it takes to be an entrepreneur and the insights I’m sure will help to simplify our journey to success.


Yes. I mentioned about learning new and upcoming technologies and predicting its possible failures to buy technology stocks. First I have learn about technology theory like the technology S-curve, punctuated equilibrium, dominant design and absorptive capacity, which can help to achieve my objectives. These technology theories uncover and explain how innovation occurred, why it was successful and another failed, identify patterns across innovation and allows comparison between them. For example, Trek 2000’s innovated thumb drive is a good example of a dominant design. The thumb drive really stands out from other designs and I know corporations will use it, showing commercial potential. I can be sure as I know of a CFO from the a company I worked last time, who used this biometric thumb drive not yet sold in the market. People will also want their information to be stored secretly in case the thumb drive is lost. If it is patented, the company shows promising potential, providing it is strong financially. I have also learn about innovation process for business opportunities which was one of my objectives. I learn the following steps in innovation process during lesson. Firstly, do research and development. Secondly, design. Thirdly, production engineering followed by pilot testing. Lastly, full scale manufacture followed by market launch.


I felt that YES, I have achieved my objectives set up in the first lesson/journal ‘“ at least most of them. Previously, I hoped to be able to learn more about past successes and experience of innovators and entrepreneurs. It is with great confidence that I can say, this is an area which I have surprisingly learnt about the most.

Through this course, I was constantly exposed to real life examples of innovators and entrepreneurs. Inspired by their stories, I believed I am now more informed about the route I have to be prepared to take should I decide to embark on the entrepreneurship path. There were talks by various successful businessmen, who spoke from their experience and their hearts. Their earnest sharing of tips, pitfalls, mistakes made, lessons learnt were mostly emotive, and sometimes even heart-wrenching.

The one that left the deepest impression on me would have to be the exclusive interview we had with Mr Henn Tan, where he narrated to us his journey from the creation, to the patenting and launching of the thumbdrive. People usually just see the end product, but few actually see that the process was filled with much difficulties and problems. The lawsuits, cash flow problems, injustice suffered, mocking from others are the things that make the end success a bittersweet one, but nevertheless a more triumphant one.

From the beginning, I have been told that the route to business and entrepreneurship is never an easy one. The course has further confirmed my assumptions. But I believe that the challenge put forward has furthered spurred me to be interested in the field. I now have a wider mindset towards entrepreneurship and its theories. In addition, I would like to comment that despite the repeated warnings and advice from the experienced, I believe there is never a foolproof way to success. So, be it a big detour or a straight path to destination, as long as I have the means and perseverance, I would be able to plough through the journey.

Also, I thought that though there are weeks where I was feeling a bit lazy, throughout this course, the information and lectures were intellectually stimulating enough to keep me motivated through the weeks. I had managed to keep up with the readings prior to classes and thus gained much insight from the discussions in class. Furthermore, due to the vibrant, creative and yet laidback style of presentations from various groups, we have been pushed to inject more thought and imagination into our communication of ideas as well. Specifically, I would say that I had thoroughly enjoyed the style of work in class too. The breakout for research and presentation routine that we have grown used to was probably one of the things that had accustomed us to picking up facts and details quickly, as well as drilled us on our presentation skills.

In short, I have taken away much from this course. Apart from academic knowledge, I walk away with friendships, skills and an open mind seeking for challenges and the unknown. What I remembered clearly was something that the Professor had impacted upon us ‘“ technology is always changing. If you do not follow up with technology, you will become obsolete/a dinosaur very fast. However, it does not mean that you will lose out to others. The speed of advancement means that the tables can be turned very fast and you would be able to catch back on. Hence, perhaps the most important thing that I carry away from the course, which was not set as an objective previously, is the thirst for knowledge and need for constant improvement.


I could still remember quite clearly what I wrote as my objectives in the first journal. I wanted to improve my presentation skills, participate more in class discussions and last but not least, of course to learn more about the technology around us.

I have definitely improved my presentation skills compared to how I was in week 1. I am more confident of myself, can look the audience in the eyes as I present and I can also handle questions thrown to me by the floor. This is also evident in my other classes ‘“ I tend to do quite well in other modules’ presentation too! As professor has mentioned, I definitely agree that presentation skills is one of the most essential things necessary in the world. It is how effective we put our points across that shows how successful we will be in the future. I am glad I learn it while I am still young.

I have also managed to participate quite a lot in class discussions. I always read the textbook chapters before our Thursday classes so that I have the basic knowledge of what we’re supposed to do during the break-outs. During other groups’ presentations, I always listen well and dare to ask any questions that I might have. In my opinion, this is the best way to learn from each other ‘“ by asking questions. I always find the presentations we have in class very interesting. Most of the things the groups presented (like about second life, mr. paddy tan, thumb drive, etc) are something that I don’t know ‘“ or worse, haven’t even heard about before! It’s really nice to sit back and listen to what other people have taken time to research about. I can learn about what the groups take days to research on in just about 20 minutes. (:

By observing them carefully, I can also pick up any good things in the way the presentation was done to improve myself and also on the bad things that I should avoid. Martin had been a great TA, he’s always willing to give me constructive feedback on how my group, or me as an individual, could improve our performance.

Certainly, through this module, I have learnt a lot about technology than I expected. Although the module sounds really boring at first (OOPS!), I am so thankful that Professor handled the class in such a manner that the class becomes very interesting! In fact, I’m always looking forward to TWC classes because it’s the class where I feel least stressed and will still teach me about a lot of things in the end ‘“ both in the context of the module and also lessons outside the module (in life, etc). Entrepreneurship has been an interesting topic to discuss and the guest speakers have definitely made me believe that it was possible to be achieved, even by ordinary people. We just need an extraordinary passion.

Personally, I feel that the greatest take-away from this module does not lie in getting good grades for the examinations (although it is a factor!), but in the lessons that I learn throughout the course. The stories and experiences shared by Professor in class and the discussions the class had on various issues, especially the one on ethics. I have certainly grown from it.

Although I cannot say that I have become more technology savvy after this module, I can certainly say that at least I have become a more mature and knowledgeable person. And for this, I am really really grateful.


Honestly speaking, i didn’t achieved all my objectives that i have set up in my first journal. i have only achieved some of them. I am glad that i had participate quite well in the class, sometimes i might not join the discussions, but i have been paying attension. however, sometimes i also have very short attention span; during lessons, i would feel tempted to talk to my friends. However, my friend Wenjie has also reminded me to pay proper attention to what prof and my other class mates have been discussing. she had also helped me a lot on my school works. although i didn’t achieve my objective of participating fully, but at least i feel glad that towards the end of the semester, i am more and more comfortable in voicing out my opinions. I have certainly gained good presentation skills form attending this course from having to gone through the nervous and exciting moments of presentation every single lesson. from that, i have also learned to be more confident. and TWC has certainly helped me out with my other modules by polishing up my presentation skills. As for following up every lesson about the theory part, that was something that i had totally failed to do. i am feeling very regretfull about my behaviors now. if only i had done my revision consistantly, i wouldn’t have to try so hard to understand the theory now when the exam is around the corner. Certainly, i have learned a lot about the technology around us and i have also learned how difficult is it to come up with an innovation from the research of our own and listening to my class mates presentations. At the same time, Prof has also teach us some entreprenial skills that we wouldn’t get to learn in the school. most importantly, the knowledge that i have gained stick vividly in my memories.


Looking back at my objectives for the course in the first weeks i have realized that in addition to achieving my objectives i have learned many new things that i had not expected too. Along with learning about various innovations, their effect and reasons for their success or failure i understood about the various steps involved throughout the process of innovation. I gained knowledge on how to tackle various problems along the way, how to predict future problems through models and theories and to make provision from them. I now look beyond the technological aspect of an innovation and have realized the importance to its business aspect. I learned all this from the text, the lectures and from the many interesting presentation topics and case studies given in class and throughout the course textbook. I would say i have largely achieved my objectives and have learned much more along the way.


In my first journal, I wrote a lot about how I wanted to build a better presenter out of myself, and how i would be able to learn to speak up more with greater confidence. I would have to say, despite having that little knowledge in this module ( i mean, its technology after all and i don’t really know much about it), i thoroughly enjoyed this course. Its one of the modules that i like going to, because there are numerous presentations going on during every lesson and i have to say that this style of learning and teaching is definitely better than the professor being the one who just droons on and on about the chapter. We don’t have to know much about the topic to be able to do well for the class, i feel. Its quite heart warming to see how the groups improved on their presentation skills, from the initial not quite knowing what to do, to coming up with brand new creative ways of having a group presentation. I believed i did managed to achieve my first objective, to become a better speaker. Although i have to admit that there is still much to be performed and improved on for my presentation skills, such as the small little fact that i should start getting used to presentations and not be so worried every time i have to present. I have to say, i really learned a lot from my group mates, and its really nice to know that i have found close confidants in them. We have really bonded well, having k box sessions after our presentation, having gossip sessions and whats not. Not only have i learned to communicate better with the people in my group, i think i have also learned to speak up better and this has definitely helped me in making new friends. I won’t say that they are the closest friends i have made, but it helped a lot in building up my network in the school. Its nice to be able to know people, and its nicer to note that the people you know knows you too. And as for prof lim, i’m happy to note that she recognizes me too! Perhaps due to the loud racket me and the girls always creates in class, and also my constant rebukes about Samsung Mobiles.

Thank you for this wonderful journey, and i must say, i will miss the class.


At the start of this course, I wanted to learn the latest in technological developments and anticipate futuristic ideas. My objectives were met through the interactive sessions with the guest speakers and the informative case study presentations.

Furthermore, textbook concepts were amplified, and we were able to see its applications in real-life situations. The sharing from our guest speakers really provided an extra insight, and I could draw links between their characteristics and those mentioned in the textbook.

I benefited most from the personal sharing of our professor when she shared on her business journey. Understanding the process of setting up a business, taking on competitors, filing patents and managing staff has greatly increased my knowledge of business management.

Lastly, the teaching style adopted has facilitated self learning and this has motivated me to set up my own business because I had many opportunities to think through what are the qualities needed by an entrepreneur to be successful. I feel that the teaching methodology has played a big role in my learning, especially in retaining valuable knowledge.


In the first hournal, I said I would like to learn anything that is related to Technology and World changes as well as prepare myself for the life in SMU. Now we are at the end of the term, I really think I have achieved a lot. First of all, I got what the text book wants to teach us. These text book therioes are useful in the later business activities. Second, I practised a lot on my presentation skills which I think is more important. I think bacially I am already prepared for the coming term through my first term. I can say i have achieved what I set at the beginning of this term. However, there is always room for improvements. Anyway, Thanks to this module and thanks to my dear prof.Pamela Lim.


I would say that my impression of this module then and now is quite totally different. Initially, I thought this course is all about learning technology, the different theories and concepts and how to apply it to everyday life. However, through the course of it, I realized that it is not actually what I thought it was back then. Thus, in response to the question, I would not say that I have achieved my objectives which I have set out to. However, one thing that I can concur for sure is that, this module has taught me a lot of innovation, becoming an innovator and most importantly, the road to becoming a successful innovator and entrepreneur.  

Before learning about innovation and in fact so much in depth, I always thought that it was easy to be an innovator and entrepreneur. Being an innovator will just mean commercialization of an invention that another person has created, showing a lack of creativity on the part of the innovator. Moreover, in newspapers, we also see many successful entrepreneurs in Singapore and all around the world, thus making me think that being one is actually not a big feat and no big deal. Often, I think that people take innovators and entrepreneurs for granted because we are just so reliant on them to improve our lives, by constantly coming up with new ideas and creations to increase our standards of living. For instance, many people nowadays own iPods and indeed this creation has been wonderful in making our lives look more sophisticated and well off then in the past where we had only walkman and disc player. Because of this successful creation, its innovator, Steve Jobs became popular and earning huge sums of money for his creation. He is portrayed as a successful, smart and wealthy man who has indeed created a breakthrough in the market with his creation. Yet, how many people actually bothered to find out and understand about the difficulties he experienced when he first started out as a nobody, before finally becoming a successful innovator that everybody knows of, that he did not have the funding and had to resort to $1 salary each month.

This module has made me understand more about the background of most innovators and the difficulties they faced, before finally becoming successful. It has also shown me the inferiority of our mindsets into thinking that the road to a successful entrepreneur and innovator is simple and with little obstacles to overcome. Throughout this course, I have taken with me important lessons about being an entrepreneur and innovator. It is not so much from reading the textbook and understanding the various concepts and theories, but more of the presentations and researches that were carried out in class and during group presentation findings. I feel that the case study presentations have benefited me the most, especially when groups interview guest speakers live, and we actually get to listen and understand first hand about what they have been through. The guest speakers seminar is also beneficial even though I did not attend the whole seminar, but it actually makes us appreciate the works of these innovators deeper, and not just taking what we have for granted.

I think what is most inspiring is the sharing session that we had with Prof. We get to experience first hand, what is her journey to becoming a successful entrepreneur herself. It truly inspires me and deepens my understanding about the tenacity that one must have in order to be successful, and of course the obstacles that we must be prepared to face if in the future, we do become entrepreneurs, creating new products and services to others. As the demand for entrepreneurs and technopreneurs are increasing in Singapore, it is important to develop for us to develop interest and understanding for innovation, and this course has indeed done so. However, certain objectives such as reading newspapers and articles about technologies and innovations were unfortunately not accomplished. Yet, I think that this course has already provided me with enough exposure, knowledge, experience and insight into the world of innovation and innovators through the lessons, presentations, researches and guest speakers’ seminar that were conducted throughout this entire learning course.

Wait, let me check my first journal ah *grin*

In my first journal, I said that I wanted to take many learning points out from this course. I wanted to appreciate technology and the impact that it would have on society and our personal lives. I also want to know the evolutionary process of innovation and how market trends would change in order to accommodate the new technology. I also said that I wanted to be analytical and ask the right questions in order to achieve my learning.

After 13 weeks, numerous presentations and many hours spent pouring over the textbook, I would now say that I have achieved my objectives that I set up in the first lesson. This is simply because I now know, through the textbook and through the presentations, all the necessary requirements that are needed before innovation can take off. Theories such as the technology S-curve, the long wave cycle and the other forms of innovations, be it radical or architectural innovation. I also learned more then what I expected. I learned about the sources of innovation and the insights that proceed before. I also learned about the business processes required and the ill effects that innovation can bring about. Surprisingly, the textbook was a good read and very current to and in context with the world market today.

The in-class discussions and presentations added a new vibe to the class. Although we had the textbook, lessons from the real world economy was brought in and this expanded the breath of the course. Different groups brought variety in the form of the many examples that they used to illustrate the learning points. I felt that today’s presentation, where there were 3 groups, brought differentiation and variety and different platforms of which we students can leverage on to learn from. It not only shows how entrepreneurs in Singapore are able to make it big and also how a game can bring about such response in class.

After 13 weeks, I have definitely taken something back with me. With all sincerity, I look forward to going to class each week because I know that it is going to different each week. The learning is not just confined to the classroom but also to the personal experiences that you, Prof, have brought in. The insight into your entrepreneur past was definitely a highlight during the term for me because it brought a personal feel and touch to the module.

With that, I thank you Prof, for making TWC one of the most interesting classes that I have attended this term. Thank you for inspiring us and believing that one day, we too would be entrepreneurs and make big money. Thank you for the memories!


I think that I have achieved what I mentioned in my first journal, to understand how innovations change the lifestyle of people. Innovations have increased the efficiency and convenience of the people. However, I also learnt that innovations may be a double edged sword. It has brought about different ill effects that affect the society, personal and even health problems. However, in my opinion, most people are still embracing innovations with open arms though it may bring about the side effects. In the years to come when more innovations surface, people will come to embrace them with even lesser resistance having to be used to them already.

Secondly, I think I have learnt to be more vocal in class too. Having to have an impromptu class presentation every week has also helped in improving my presentation skills and making me more used to presentations.

On the whole, I feel that I have achieved what I set up in my first journal and I am very happy to have done so.


I feel I have learned a lot in this course, but acutually I don’t think I ‘ve met all my goals. For the knowledge, I am quite satisfied because I found a lot of useful things from the book and what prof taught and her own experience. Now I have a better understanding of techonology and the effects of it.

For the teamwork, I have really learned much from my teammates, such as how to brainstorm, how to plan our presentation,how to make it creative, how to allocate the tasks, and how to present.

However, there are still many objectives I have not achieved. At the beginning of this term, I thought everything would be OK if I worked hard, such as the presentation and class participation. However, after a few days I found it was not as easy as I thought. I still can not present or answer the questions as freely as I espected, and sometimes it’s still hard for me to participate in the class. My English and presentation skills should still be improved and more importantly, I need to be confident.

I did see that some international students did very well in my class, so it may not be so difficult to excel among the local students. I think if I work harder I will be able to do it in the near future.


Objective 1: Appreciate how technology has helped us in our daily lives; know the pros and cons of our ever-changing technology.

I think I’ve achieved this objective and after today’s lesson, I’ve come to a conclusion that each new technology comes with its advantages and its disadvantages. In order to gain something, we will have to lose something. I personally feel that technology has brought us more disadvantages than advantages. For example, technology has made our lives extremely convenient to the extent that people become lazy and unhealthy habits are being cultivated.

Objective 2: Understand how technology has changed over the years and what caused such changes.

From what I’ve learnt, globalization is the main cause of the change in technology.  

Objective 3: Find out how inventors and innovators came out with such technology.

I’ve learnt the difference between inventors and innovators and also how innovators come out with their technology is through the 5 different sources of innovation: individual, users, process needs, spillovers, corporate undertakings.

Objective 4: Learn all I can from the Prof, TA and my fellow classmates and hope to be able to apply the key concepts learnt to my daily live.

I’ve learnt many new things from Prof, TA and my fellow classmates. Like what Prof said, everyone in class has a different background so there is always something which we can learn from one another. For example, I’ve learnt from Prof about how the owner’s shares can be diluted when investors invest money in the company.

Overall, I think I’ve benefited a lot from this course and I think I will truly miss the class. Initially during the first few classes, I felt extremely stress because the pace of each lesson was too fast for me to cope. Especially during the breakout sessions, whereby we have to present our findings within 30 minutes. However, when I look back now, I’m surprised that I’ve actually pulled through all the lessons and at the same time improved my presentation skills and self-confidence as I share my experiences with the class. These are the two most precious achievements which I’ve gained from this course.

In terms of gaining insights this course has been the most beneficial. I may not have been most interested in technology in the beginning but I have come to realise how important it is. I think my second objective has really been met. Listening to all the stories of technical entreprenuers not neccessarily having technical knowledge but being able to read the market and make use of opportunities. I have also learnt that instead of taking on all things myself when i intend to start a business, having the right people as partners might increase my chances of success. What I have learnt most though, is to make presentations, to prepare presentations in a most efficient manner. In the beginning it was a really stressful process, choosing what information to present and getting used to presenting information that we had just absorbed, but as the weeks went by it seemed more natural and we were generally more comfortable presenting.


Yes,I think most objectives have been achieved and moreover other useful knowledge have been instilled throughout the whole term to fully equip me as a business student. Generally the course set a good foundation for further senior course of business as well as gaining a general picture about the current business world, how it works and evolved through time of technology. Objectives achieved for the 1st journal: 1.Get to know the latest technology from book, class presentation and lecture. 2.By comparing the regulations and standards in Singapore to China I draw up some conclusions and see opportunities and gaps at the same time. 3.The various cases presented on book and the enriching speakers all give inspirations to us as how to innovate in this information age. Other useful knowledge I gained and skill I learned: 1.The in-class presentation is really suffering but made me ever more efficient and articulate, which is not easy for a local student, let alone an international student. 2.All the unexpected technology theories really amazed me and altered my perception on technology as just a random spark of knowledge but one with predictable sequence, certain key factors as catalyst and more other valuable knowledge. 3.The most strict class participation requirement, the most questions I asked among all my classes. 4.When study technology area, we still more or less touch on other areas like finance, accounting, corporate governance and lots of other areas that my horizon has been broadened relating subjects. Want to learn more about: 1.The different technology strengths or weaknesses of countries around world. 2.Current news on technology happened around world to be discussed in class which is more refreshing and impressionable.


In the first journal, I have set up three main objectives that I have set out to achieve during this course. I have aimed to learn and understand about the integral role technical entrepreneurship plays in the fast-changing global market today. Besides aiming to obtain knowledge in this area, I have also set out to grab learning opportunities to better myself. For instance, taking advantage of the in-class presentation time to hone my presentation skills and building up my confidence in speaking up in class more than I usually do. Moreover, during ‘˜break-out’ sessions, I plan to motivate group discussions forward and ensure efficiency in the working as a team.

In my opinion, I have met the objectives that I have challenged myself to meet. Throughout this course, I have gathered beneficial information about innovations and how new technologies gear the economy towards positive growth. I was able to do that not only through theory based learning (reading up the textbook) but also from my fellow peers and classmates. During group case study presentations, I have gained new and interesting insights apart from what I can acquire from the textbook. It is also very enjoyable when we have discussion sessions as a class whenever an intriguing topic is brought up. In an interactive environment, there is definitely much more to benefit beyond the textbook. It also provides a platform for everyone to share their views and opinions. Therefore, in this encouraging environment, I have developed the habit to speak up whenever I have an input to contribute to the discussions.

Apart from meeting the objectives, I believe that I have gained more than what I have set out to achieve in the process. There is a statement made by Professor Lim that set me thinking. ‘œTechnology is very unforgiving. What you have learnt today is gone tomorrow.’� I think that this statement is very apt in describing the world today, where change is the only constant. To stay relevant in this rapidly changing world, it is very crucial to keep discovering new technologies as ‘˜new’ technologies become obsolete in a very short period of time. As mentioned always, technical entrepreneurship is the only source of long term competitive advantage, therefore to strive in this economy today, it is essential to keep innovating.

On the other hand, this statement sends out another message to me. Not only technology is unforgiving, I feel that anything that we learn today will be gone tomorrow. Hence, it is very important that we do not stop learning and strive to improve ourselves continuously in terms of academic achievements, life skills and even interpersonal skills. Another aspect that this class has inspired me to do is to work effortlessly for my passion. Like many technical entrepreneurs that we have learnt about in class, passion is the strongest motivation to succeed. Not only in terms of monetary gains but also the satisfaction gained upon seeing your efforts and perseverance bear fruits.

All in all, though this course has come to an end, I am sure with the invaluable lessons I have gained and the positive change of outlook towards learning will be useful in both my academic and future career.


During my first journal, I mentioned that I believe that this course will provide an opportunity to help me further explore, and acquire more knowledge on the ever-evolving technology. I will read up more articles and look into case studies of successful cases of technology inventions and innovations.

For the past 14 weeks, it has brought me through a long yet fruitful journey. Technology truly has made great changes and impact to the changing world. From the several guest speakers, I also came to realize the amount of hard work needed to be put in to be a successful entrepreneur. In our everyday lives, we tend to neglect many technologies around us and take them for granted. For example, as mentioned by Mr Gurcharan Singh, the commonly use of the word ‘œthumbdrive’� is actually patented by Trek. It is just out of habit and convenience that we take the world ‘œthumbdrive’� for granted as everyone uses it.

This further leads to the issue of patent infringement. Through the topic on intellectual property rights, I was able to learn more about the pros and cons of the different IPs and the significant impact it has brought to the patent holders. IP rights are also mentioned by most guest speakers as it is a very tedious process.

In addition, the various project presentations on technical entrepreneurs have led me to learn more about the new yet existing technology which I may not explore myself. Some examples are the multi touch screen, the thumbdrive, Facebook etc.  

Overall, it has changed my views on this module, especially from the in class presentations, guest speakers seminar and presentation. These have provided me with real life examples and support the theories we have learned from the text.



There were generally 3 objectives that I set out to achieve at the beginning of the course.

I wanted to learn more about the inventors and innovators of modern technology and how it changed people’s lives.

In addition, I wanted to find how their inventions/innovations were marketed and thereafter diffused and assimilated into the market to ensure success.

With the presence of complements in the market, how these inventors/innovators are able to streamline their products to the complements or to make complements compatible with their product. Vice versa, how they are able to differentiate and distinguish themselves from substitutes in their niche markets? I intend to do all this through research on the various inventors/innovators, which impacted our lives with their products.

After the whole course, I realized I started off with quite simple objectives in mind. Apparently, I learnt about a whole wealth of inventors and innovators ranging from Jeff Bezos (Amazon), Dan Bricklin (Spreadsheet), Ron Hickman (Workmate) from the text and also others like Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook), Steve Jobs (Apple), Larry Page (Google) from in-class presentations.

I also learnt about the various forms and types of innovation and also the sources of innovation, whereby innovators get insight from ‘“ spillovers, individuals, users, corporate undertakings or process needs.

In addition, I also learnt about different theories like the S-Curve, Moore’s Law, Punctuated Equilibrium, Dominant Design, Absorptive Capacity and how they help to describe the process of technology and how it helps in the analysis of the technology and where it’ll head towards in the near future. On top of that, some of the theories can also predict what technologies are faltering and what new disruptive technologies are coming up. Moore’s Law has also been set as the industrial standard of producing microchips and pre-empts the trend.

At this point it was no doubt that I had already achieved my first two objectives and value-added on it. We than learnt about the generic model of innovation process which than answers what I wanted to learn in my 3rd objective. Models of the process were also taught, the most significant ones being the coupling, network and integrated processes.

The importance of IP was stressed during lessons and this was further consolidated during the presentation by Mr Gurcharan Singh, CFO of Trek2000. He made it very clear to us about the importance of protecting your intellectual property. No matter what you innovate, how good you are able to market it, if you cannot protect your technology, it is as good as futile. This is because copycats or ‘˜clones’ will emulate your technologies by reverse engineering and in no time, there’ll be innumerable competitors in the market vying for the market share with you.

During his presentation, he highlighted the importance of filing patents fast because in his particular case, it took 2 years to approve his patent, 1 year to process his lawsuit against competitors who infringe his IP and another year to settle the appeal. In total it took 5 years and although it was a successful litigation, but it cost Trek200 a lot in terms of law expenses, patent expenses. In addition, even though the lawsuit has been settled, the company has not received any compensation 2 years since. Such is the reality in the technological world.

In addition, I realized that there is an opportunity cost if your hold your products back because the patent hasn’t been approved yet. That would mean a loss in profit and market share. However, if you push your products into the market when your patent is not up it might be worse ‘“ Clones might come in very fast and copy your technology, improving on it and usurping the market share.

A myriad of technopreneurs were also presented in class, and how they got funds. Apparently they got their funds from different sources ‘“ FFF, bootstrapping, banks, government funds, business angels, corporate funds, venture capitalists and getting listed (IPO). During the presentations, the more important ones were the ones presented in class, like the schemes provided by EDB and Spring Singapore.

On top of that, during the presentation by Mr. Gurcharan Singh, he talked about this partnership program whereby you can pair up with A’STAR and get their scientists to work in your company by paying only half their pay. With that you can access their talents before they get inducted into your company. He also said that Trek 2000 gained funds by issuing shares to Toshiba, Creative, Imation etc. But more importantly, he shone light on another issue about not allowing external parties to hold too much shares for the sake of getting funds. This is because if the company is dear to you, and you are close with your technology, you shouldn’t dilute the shareholding too much.

During the speaker session organized for the whole level, Mr Patrick Ho talked about the emerging technology being wireless. Dr Clive Go talking about how important it is to handle your finance well to be financially independent by 45. As for Mr Ong, he talked about why it was not good to be the pioneer of a technology because it usually almost fails. It would be better the technology emerge as one of the first instead.

In conclusion, in TWC besides learning about real-life example in the book and learning about theories, I also got to understand first-hand experience from Prof. In addition, the presentations also increased the awareness of the technology that surrounds us in the modern world. Finally, the talks made all that we learn blend into reality and gave us a picture the importance of the things we picked up previously and how, technology has changed the world. I definitely met my objectives and it has been a real insightful experience.


My objectives set up in the first lesson were to be more knowledgeable of what innovation involves and its management. I’ve discovered the ingredients that led to the success or failure of technology and its impact, which has allowed me to develop intellectual viewpoints and achieve greater depth in my knowledge of technology, innovation and entrepreneurship. In all, I would proudly say that I’ve achieved my objectives for this module, and I’ve gained a lot from this interactive and interesting semester of Technology and World Change.

Some examples of technopreneurship I’ve learnt and will remember are Philip Rosedale, the founder of Second Life ‘“ a virtual world where one can adopt any identity and express our inner self. Another is the inventor of the thumb drive. Also, it will be Dr Cliff Go, who specializes in financial planning, asset allocation and investment management for high net worth individuals, corporations and institutions. These are some of the people I’ve come to know of and learnt from their past experiences. I’ve learnt, that we need to build a strong basis of foundation right here in university; I’ve learnt that an entrepreneur is usually a nice, caring person who puts on no airs; I’ve learnt that we need to dare to expose ourselves and venture outside, to have the guts and believe in our own capabilities that we can fulfil our expectations; I’ve learnt that an innovator requires one to have boldness and the capacity to think and act differently, to overcome any fear and resignation. One should also be willing to take risk and be open to change.

Moreover, the textbook content regarding how innovation comes about, the commercialisation and the funding of set-ups are key concepts that has allowed me to achieve my objectives of understanding more about how technology and the world. Even reading newspapers or magazine articles on technopreneurship / entrepreneurship has became more attractive after being empowered by the knowledge gained from the whole course. I began to understand some of the terms in the articles and comprehend the whole idea that the article strives to put across. I am better versed with terms such as venture capital, angel investor, trademark, patent etc, and begin to appreciate the many intellectual viewpoints, as well as achieving greater depth in my understanding – this was the most enlightening part

In addition, one of the objectives set up in the first lesson was to improve my presentation skills. I would say I’ve gotten used to presenting that it has become a norm. I’ve become more confident of articulating my thoughts and to lend my views or opinions. On the other hand, I’ve also learnt and developed different ways of conveying an idea or concept across, such as skits, videos, animations and humour, which are the useful for an effective presentation on top of being vocal, articulate and confident. In conclusion, this course has benefitted me wholesomely, and has allowed me to gain invaluable exposure as a first year student. Thank you Prof (:


Definitely. I started out hoping to gain more insight on the business world, and in the process, I got more than I asked for.

Learning from a real entrepreneur is really different from learning from just other professor with less entrepreneurial experience. I benefited most from the chapter of intellectual property. It opened my eyes to so many business aspects, strategies that i was blind to before.

Our class was not only fun and lesson entertaining, but I actually felt that all of us actually carried away knowledge from the class that CANNOT be taught from textbooks.

In one instance is the guestspeaker session. In that session, I came to understand more about what makes a successful entrepreneur, and what it was that I lacked to bring me to the foot of their path to success.

Hearing at how the other classes had their TWC, I’m glad I was lucky enough to be sent to this particular class. That is why I believed I have achieved my objectives set up since the first lesson.


In my first journal entry, I mentioned that my main objective is to bridge the gap between textbook concepts of technology and real world situations. In retrospect, I believe I have met this objective and I can attribute this to the way this course is structured and carried out by Prof Lim.

We are exposed to a wide range of relevant real world case studies, in line with our course syllabus and engage in healthy debate in class. One topic that I find particularly interesting and informative is patents. The example used to illustrate this was the lawsuit between Kiddie and X-IT. Although the text tells us that once our patent is secured, we can exercise our legal rights on those that infringe it. However, this case study points out that this is a too simplistic way of thinking. In the real world, lawsuits can cost companies millions of dollars and is a drain on the company’s cashflow and resources. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate the financial standing of the company, whether they are competent enough to take on the bigger guys. I’ve learnt that sometimes, for smaller companies, it is better to let it go and focus on innovating newer products. Overall, I feel that where patents are concerned, the law can only protect you to a certain extent and you should take ownership and responsibility in protecting your own innovations, and the best way to do so is to keep your confidential information in the strictest confidence.

In addition, I find the speakers session very useful. They bring into the classroom real life working experiences and knowledge which we can never find in textbooks. Sometimes, I feel that theories in the textbook are too rigid and they are hard to apply in real business situations, or they may work in some and fail in others. Each and every business is unique and the challenge in making it successful encompasses many factors, for example, luck. The textbook gives us a broad idea of managing innovations such as the kind of funding resources entrepreneurs can look to, but this is very brief and if we’re thinking of starting a business, we definitely need more information than that.

In conclusion, I feel that I have achieved my main objective and this course has indeed broadened my horizons. I am still learning to find a balance between theories and textbook concepts and I think that I will get a better grasp of it after I gain more working experience.

In the first journal, I have set up a goal which is I hope I can get knowledge of how to make an ordinary invention become a successful innovation. Now, through learning TWC for about four months, I’ve learned the process of how to get success, also many factors that will lead to success. We learn lots of things on book, also we interview successful people to get more real example to help us understand better. Though I’ve learned a lot from TWC, I’m still not confident in being an entrepreneur. To me, the market and everything are still strangers. I’m not sure whether I have the ability to handle everything, or I can make right decision on the right time, also, whether I can afford the huge stress and responsibility on me. I still have lots and lots doubt and hesitate in my mind. TWC gives me a brief idea of what I should do in the future; also TWC gives me a lot of console, as people can get success if they have good strategy and if they are respectful man. What I need now is time, to let me face the challenge and get experiences. Future is unknown, but I’m sure that future can be changed, and I’ll still keep working to achieve the goal I set up in the very first lesson.


Yes, I have achieve a few of the objectives I set up in my first week of lesson. The first objective I have achieved is learning how do technical entrepreneurship started out and their journey to success. I learnt that not only do they have to have a product or services that can really bring in the money, but they have to go around looking for people to invest in their products or services so that they can successfully market it to the world. I came to a realisation that having a feasible business plan or in TWC term, the best product or service does not necessarily mean we will succeed or that we would not have difficulty asking for capital. I realised that in the real business world, you have to have what it takes to be an entrepreneur, not afraid of failures and to be able to take rejection with a pinch of salt. This is one lesson I have to learn well as I am not the type of person who handles rejection well. The next objective I have sort of achieve is to learn more about the technology world which I found to be really interesting. This goes especially to Prof Lim who mentioned really interesting ideas about the ways we can make money from the current technology or some of the real-life experiences that you shared about some of the processes and hard work people had to go through to be successful in this industry. It really opened my eyes and inspired me to work harder so that I can make my dream of being an entrepreneur came true.


(I thought this journal had no deadline? Oh dear. I’m rushing through this. But don’t worry, it doesn’t mean I’m not putting in serious effort; I am! Hurr. ((= )

After 13 weeks into the course, to be honest, I have not really achieved my objectives that I set up in my 1st journal.

I had wanted to learn and acquire knowledge about the impact of the changes of technology would have on the present society as compared to the society of in the past. Of course, I did learn about the impact but in tangible terms, it was only a small chapter (equivalent to one week’s lecture) in the textbook. And yes, what else can we learn of the impact of changing technology? Some might say that the various impacts are evident enough so that we do not need to learn about it. Sad to say, I concur. Furthermore, I expected to see much more contrast and comparison between societies of two different timelines. Say, ancient Egypt versus current America or something along those lines. I was particularly interested in learning about the magnitude of technology used in ancient civilizations and/or olden times (like, in the 1950s).

However, throughout these 13 weeks, I have gained other valuable knowledge. I have learnt that there is more to knowing merely about the impact that changing technology has on our present society. I have realized that there is an impact in the first place due to the various forms of innovations and the myriad of ways that an innovation was taken up. In other words, there are a lot of other factors that have led changing technology creating an impact on our society. To put in simpler terms, I’ve not only learnt more about the ‘œeffect’� but also that of the ‘œcause’�.

Making an innovation a successful one is truly difficult. To transform an invention to an innovation is a long and arduous process and I honestly salute those that had managed to do so. Furthermore, in my opinion, whether or not an innovation is successful, it is bound to create repercussions. There will be others who will be willing and able to work on that idea (an adaptation of the follower-imitator strategy, perhaps?) and make a success out of it thus, creating an impact! So, indirectly, the failed innovation did create a change.

For someone or for an organization to create that change is really extraordinary. The amount of hard work, money, effort and sweat put in is not something that anybody is willing and able to sacrifice. Through this, I have discovered that not anyone can be an innovator but everyone can be an inventor.

Thus, although I have not really managed to meet ALL my objectives, I have managed to learn other things OUTSIDE my objectives which I, obviously, have come to appreciate.

Thank you Prof Pam Lim! ((=

In the first journal, I set out to learn how to follow in the examples of Larry Page and Sergey Brin, and foster a culture of innovation and creativity in my future businesses. After 13 weeks, I am not sure I achieved that objective. Certainly, by reading about technoprenuers, I intellectually know what it may take to foster an attitude of innovation, but whether or not I can DO it, will have to be tested when I’m in charge of a business. However, I did learn things I knew I could. I’ve come to appreciate the importance of intellectual properties, and why a business MUST do all it can to fight and protect it’s IP rights. That in itself made TWC worthwhile.

Yes I feel that I have achieved the objectives that I have set to achieve in this module, and more. From this module, I am now more acutely aware of the technology around us and how it affects our daily lives. The weekly break-out sessions were stressful, yet served their purpose as we learnt better than if we were to listen to the lesson. The hands-on approach helped us remember what we learnt and the fact that the powerpoint slides were a product of our own hard work, I have always kept them as a memento and for future reference. This module has also helped make me more ‘œimmune’� to presentation. I am definitely more confident of doing an impromptu presentation now than at any other point in my life so far, and much of it has to be attributed to this module. The weekly break-out sessions as well as the open concept in class has made it impossible (as it has been in some other modules) for anyone to stay silent the entire module. On top of this, the break-out sessions have also made our data collection more concise due to the time constraints. I feel that this module would benefit SMU students if permanently implemented as a year 1 term 1 module.


From my first learning journal, I’ve stated that I would like to learn more about how technology has made an impact in our everyday lives and to understand how technology will soon revoluntionise the world we live in. So yes, I have achieved my objectives. In week 13, one of the groups introduced to us, Jeff Han and his breakthrough touchscreen. It was predicted that the touchscreen will soon replace our mouses and keyboards. In addition, the speaker from TREK has shown us the ThumbDriveTM Swipe equipped with fingerprint swipe sensor technology and various functions.

However, I’ve also more than achieved my objectives. From this course, I’ve also learnt about the processes through which innovation comes about, the theories of innovation and more interestingly, the importance of Intellectual Property. And more recently, all the groups in the class have done a case study on the funding issues for technopreneurs. For my group, we did a case study on Facebook and its funding problems at the beginning. It was indeed an eye-opening experience for us we would never thought that such a successful website would have funding problems. In week 11, several speakers also provided insights into setting up businesses in technology and several problems they faced.

In conclusion, we very much depend on technologies o enhance the quality of our lives. Today, new technologies such as microchipping, robotics and nanotechnology are constantly emerging. They will very much contribute to making our world a better place.

no , because objectives are not so easy to be set up, even i got a lot of new imformation on this course in first and journal, it is still not enough to set up objectives, objectives should be set up after i get a comprehensive understanding about the course and more importantly, i should know what achievement i want and the objectives should be suitable for me. so it is a process which needs time to make for me.


The TWC lesson seemed challenging and rigorous from the very first lesson. I had never done a course like this ever before. Thus, I decided to make most of this opportunity I had got. Yes, I think I have been able to achieve my objectives set in the first lesson. Firstly, I was able to learn about changes in technology and their effect on the business environment in different economies. The in-class presentations and discussions made the classes much more interesting and helped maintain my enthusiasm in the lessons. Also, since the presentations were group presentations, I learnt about working in a team and made new international friends too. Apart from these, the prof was helpful and always ready to solve any problems I had. I especially remember the day I was confused about the inventor of the photocopier. To solve this confusion, the prof asked us to do our in-class presentation on that particular topic. This was extremely helpful and clarified my doubts. All in all, I feel that TWC was a valuable course to have completed and I would like to do another advanced course sometime in future.

In my first journal, I wrote that I hoped to gain a greater awareness and understanding on the various uses of technology, its importance and the role innovation plays in our lives. After 12 weeks of attending the course, I feel that my objectives have been achieved. In fact, I could happily say that the course exceeded my expectations, as I learnt more than what I expected. It not only provided me with a broad understanding of the various facets of innovation and technology, but also exposed me to the various real-life applications of innovation and technology. This is mainly achieved through the problem-based learning we had in class. The in-class research and the presentations we had were great opportunities to explore actual cases of innovations and technology, as well as platforms for us to apply the skills and knowledge we had learnt in class. For instance, for my group’s first presentation, we researched on the innovation approaches adopted by Dell and Toyota. Through the research and discussions we had, I had a clearer idea of what an innovation approach entails, and the rationale for different approaches by the two different companies. By presenting to the class the newly acquired knowledge I had gathered, I was given the chance to assimilate the information and knowledge. It also pushes me to read up on external sources and readings other than the stipulated course materials. Besides this, I have also gleaned many invaluable insights from my Professor and classmates. The class interactions and discussions have given me insights into the workings of certain industries like the mobile phone and computer industries. In addition, the seminar organised by my fellow classmates, also exposed me to the actual operations of industries.

In a nutshell, although the duration of the course may be short, the experiences I had are unique and they have fuelled my interest in topics like innovation and entrepreneurship. Thanks to the course, I am now equipped with the necessary understanding and knowledge of the above topics, and who knows, I may even become an entrepreneur or an innovator in future! In short, many thanks to the class for providing me with such a wonderful learning experience!

Yes, I have achieved most of these objectives. For my first objective which is to learn about how innovation and technology complements business processes, I feel that I have accomplished the theoretical part of it, whereby whatever I’ve learnt from the textbook has definitely given me more knowledge on how innovation and technology is important to the business processes. All the models, theories and examples have shown me how technology is essential to most businesses, and when applied correctly can yield maximum profits. However, I feel that this objective is only partially accomplished, because there are definitely more things to learn along the way about innovation and technology applied to business processes. After all, what we have all studied is just theoretical, and when applied in our everyday lives and in different situations, it can be very different. That is why the learning still goes on.

I feel that I have accomplished my second objective. I have definitely picked up some good presentation skills throughout the entire module, and definitely feel more confident when I’m speaking in front of an audience. The peer evaluation and watching my peers present in class has aided me in making my presentations more interesting, and now I feel that I can present with more ease.

TWC has definitely helped me in many ways, and I am thankful for the entire experience and journey.

In terms of learning basic concepts and theories about technology and world change, and developing awareness for technology, I think have already learnt a lot from the past lessons and textbook. Also, through the exercises of case studies and presentation in every lesson,I can research for information about technology effectively, and present confidently in class. What’s more, I make friends with my teammates, we know each other better and can communicate with each other freely. necessary backgroud and new trend about technology. Meanwhile, I will try my best to participate in class.


All my life, I have always wanted to start my own business. ‘œTechnology and World Change’� helps me to better understand the path and route towards being a successful businessman, a successful entrepreneur, a successful technopreneur.

At the start of this learning journey, I set out objectives to learn about the evolution of technology, to know how to go about to be a successful technopreneur. However, not only did I manage to achieve those objectives, I learnt even more. The systematic teaching taught me things I never knew. I always thought that to be entrepreneur was to come up with an idea, and then starting hiring people to do the jobs for you while you supervise ‘“ taking the easy way out. However, to be able to supervise or even to be a technopreneur, I need to know how the product works. Only then will I be more credible when I want to market my product. Knowing how it works is also important because only then you will be able to know how to improve the innovation. Be it incremental or radical. To have market knowledge is also very important. If a entrepreneur isn’t able to know what consumers want or how feasible the product is, he would surely fail. For example, the failure of Corfam. Timing is also very important. Entrepreneur got to have a good sense of timing if not the innovation may not be as successful as it may be. Next would be funding. Funding is essential, because without funds, nothing can get started. Research and development may not get moving. Even if one is establish, more funds are always required express. I learn that funds also pose as problems that may alter business strategies. I am able to see and weigh the pros and cons of developing and producing the innovation internally or externally. If the cost of production is expensive and requires high capital, it is more sensible to license the technology out to get royalty fee etc. However, it is important to protect these intellectual properties with IPRs.

To show how much I have learnt, the list will go on. However, these are only things I have learnt from the textbook. Through this class, I learn more then just the theories and strategies but rather people skills that would be of good use in future. Firstly – presentation skills. To be able to present is an asset in future when an entrepreneur tries to market his or her product. To be able to present well will improve credibility. I am also able to handle problems in time constraining situations with the countless break-out sessions. I also made many friends that increased my social network, and who knows, they may be my future business partners. According to Dr. Cliff Go, during the entrepreneur talk, I learn that network starts even now. In this class, I got the opportunity to meet many entrepreneurs to share their life experiences, something in which is very real and valuable. What’s more, I get to have a successful technopreneur as my professor, someone who gives me new insights and point out the difficulties in starting a novelty and marketing it. It is not just what I learn in the textbook that would make me a successful entrepreneur but also the other factors too.

In journal 1, I stated that I want to be able to generate innovative ideas that would give me opportunities to become a successful entrepreneur. I believe that I have accomplished that because I never stop thinking of ways in which I am able to come up with an innovation. However, insights may come with a snap of the finger but the process to come up with that insight isn’t an easy one. The route of an entrepreneur is tough and not for the faint hearted. Entrepreneurs also have to possess certain qualities to be successful and it is shown in journal 9.

Reading through all the journals I have written, I feel that this learning journey has been a fruitful one. As I have stated, not only have I met my objective of wanting to learn more on innovations and develop entrepreneurship skills, but I also learn something more. I truly enjoyed ‘œTechnology and World Change’�. Not just because of the friends I made or the insights I’ve learnt but rather the interactive way of teaching. As a first year, first term student. TWC has layout strong platform to face new challenges in my university life. However, the quest in becoming a successful technopreneur does not end here but rather it continues throughout my life. It doesn’t matter what age I begin to shine but rather having the perseverance and passion to shine. Hard work is important and as stated in my first journal entry, ‘œlike Alexander Graham Bell and Steve Jobs, I hope to use these elements to persevere and achieve that plan.’�

Thank you prof for making my learning journey a enjoyable and memorable. A great way to kick start my university life.

‘It is good to have an end to journey towards; but it is the journey that matters in the end.’�


Till now, by the end of my first semester in SMU, I want to say that I really enjoyed my study here, especially in the TWC class. I had good prof and fellow classmates. They taught me much, not only from the textbook, but also totally new angles of observing, thinking and innovating. Generally speaking, after this semester, I achieved most of the objective set up in the frist lesson, including much progress in communication with local people.

Though through these lessons, I am still unable to come up with an innovation, I have learnt so much about innovation and entrepreneurship, be it from hearing about others’ real life experiences or through the textbook.

I feel the most important trait of being a innovator would probably be passion. Being passionate about your invention would mean trusting in it and being determined to see it through all the stages of innovation, such as through development and commercialization. Such processes, I learnt, take a long time and it could mean not being able to reap any financial gains till much later. Also, for every innovation, there is a risk that it would fail, be it due to technological or market failure. Thus, to be an innovator, one must dare to take the risk. Also, being passionate about one’s product means never resting on one’s laurels and continually thinking of ways to improve or expand the scope of one’s business.

When listening to young entrepreneurs such as BAK2U’s Paddy Tan or Mr Ong from ByteSquare Technologies, I learnt that these people would have made more money had they taken on normal 9-to-5 jobs. Also, they would probably not have to work as hard and would have more normal working hours. Mr Ong even refused a job offer by Google, which is well-known for having a fun working environment, which makes jobs there highly sought after. Their other partners or other companies which were also funded by NUS left such ventures as going through the process of innovation must have been very trying. Thus, the two entrepreneurs must have been really passionate about their products. Another thing they had in common, was that both of them continually thought of new ways and methods to improve or expand their business by coming up with new products.

Something else I observed, was that innovators, entreprenuers or ‘œtechnopreneurs’� are seldom female. Be it examples from the textbook or guest speakers, there were either few or no female examples. Perhaps this could be due to the fact that females are stereotypically better at things like people skills rather than inventing things. However, I feel like this could change as one sees more and more female engineers these days. Also, as males are normally expected to ‘œbring home the bacon’�, it could be easier for females to take risks associated with inventing and innovating a product. Thus, even when she comes to a stage of negative cash flow, there would still be her husband to support her. In comparison, if a man were the sole breadwinner and he faces financial difficulties, the family would be in deeper trouble.

There are so many steps in innovating a certain product, from doing R&D, testing, applying for patents or other forms of intellectual property rights to marketing the product. Perhaps, one can only truly learn what innovating really is and means by taking the first step and deciding to expand on an idea one has. By doing that, one would learn the different aspects of doing business such as dealing with suppliers, sourcing for financing or marketing the product. It is easy to come up with ideas or simply copy or draw from someone else’s idea. The difficulty comes from the many hours and dollars put into developing that idea and making it commercially viable. That, I feel, is something which cannot be done without passion.

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